Thursday, August 17, 2017

1631 Young New England Indentured Servant's Urgent Plea to his Parents Back in England

From the Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 2nd Series, vol. 8 (Boston, 1892-1894). The writer is unidentified.

March 15, 1631
To my loving father William Pond, at Etherston in Suffolk give this.

MOST LOVING & KIND FATHER & MOTHER, My humble duty remembered unto you, trusting in God you are in good health, & I pray remember my love unto my brother Joseph & thank him for his kindness that I found at his hand at London...

I know, loving father, & do confess that I was an undutiful child unto you when I lived with you & by you, for the which I am much sorrowful & grieved for it, trusting in God that he will guide me that I will never offend you so any more & I trust in God that you will forgive me for it.

My writing unto you is to let you understand what a country this New England is where we live. Here are but few [Indians], a great part of them died this winter, it was thought it was of the plague. They are a crafty people & they will...cheat, & they are a subtle people, & whereas we did expect great store of beaver here is little or none to be had. They are proper men...many of them go naked with a skin about their loins, but now sum of them get Englishmen's apparel; &

the country is very rocky and hilly & some champion ground & the soil is very [fruitful], & here is some good ground and marsh ground, but here is no Michaelmas. Spring cattle thrive well here, but they give small store of milk. The best cattle for profit is swines & a good swine is her at £5 price, and a goose worth £2 a good one got. Here is timber good store & acorns good store, and here is good store of fish if we had boats to go for & lines to serve to fishing...

people here are subject to diseases, for here have died of the scurvy & of the burning fever nigh too hundred & odd; beside as many lie lame & all Sudbury men are dead but three & three women & some children, & provisions are here at a wonderful rate...

If this ship had not come when it did we had been put to a wonderful straight, but thanks be to God for sending of it in. I received from the ship a hogshead of meal, & the Governor telleth me of a hundred weight of cheese the which I have received part of it. I humbly thank you for it. I did expect two cows, the which I had none, nor I do not earnestly desire that you should send me any, because the country is not so as we did expect it.

Therefore, loving father, I would entreat you that you would send me a ferckeine of butter & a hogshead of malt unground, for we drink nothing but water, & a coarse clothe of four pound price so it be thick. For the freight, if you of your love will send them I will pay the freight, for here is nothing to be got without we had commodities to go up to the East parts amongst the Indians to truck, for here where we live here is no beaver.

Here is no cloth to be had to make no apparel, & shoes are a 5s a pair for me, & that cloth that is worth 2s 8d is worth here 5s. So I pray, father, send me four or five yards of cloth to make some apparel, & loving father, though I be far distant from you yet I pray you remember me as your child, & we do not know how long we may subsist, for we can not live here without provisions from old England.

Therefore, I pray do not put away your shop stuff, for I think that in the end, if I live, it must be my living, for we do not know how long this plantation will stand, for some of the magnates that did uphold it have turned off their men & have given it over. Besides, God hath taken away the chiefest stud in the land, Mr. Johnson & the lady Arabella his wife, which was the chiefest man of estate in the land & one that would have done most good.

Here came over 25 passengers & their came back again four score & odd persons, & as many more would a come if they had wherewithal to bring them home, for are many that came over the last year which was worth two hundred pounds afore they came ought of old England that between this & Micahelmas will be hardly worth £30. So here we may live if we have supplies every year from old England, otherwise we can not subsist.

I may, as I will, work hard, set an acre of [English] wheat, & if we do not set it with fish & that will cost 20 s., if we set it without fish they shall have but a poor crop. So father, I pray, consider of my cause, for here will be but a very poor being, no being without loving father, your help with provisions from old England.

I had thought to come home in this ship, for my provisions were almost all spent, but that I humbly thank you for your great love & kindness in sending me some provisions or else I should & mine a been half famished, but now I will, if it please God that I have my health, I will plant what corn I can, & if provisions be not cheaper between this & Michaelmas & that I do not hear from you what I was best to do, I purpose to some home at Michaelmas.

My wife remembers her humble duty unto you & to my mother, & my love to brother Joseph & to Sarey Myler. Thus I leave you to the protection of Almighty God.

Watertown, New England, Unsigned

Wednesday, August 16, 2017

17C British Woman by Wenceslaus Hollar (European-born English artist, 1607-1677)

We have few depictions of women in the 17C British American colonies, but the prints by Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677) allow us to see the hairstyles & fashions being worn on the other side of the Atlantic during the early years of the English colonization of America.
Wenceslaus Hollar (European-born English artist, 1607-1677) Portrait of a Woman 1642

Tuesday, August 15, 2017

17C Estimated Slave Imports into the New World

Estimated Slave Imports to the New World, 17th Century

Spanish American 292,500

Brazil 560,000

British Caribbean 263,700

Dutch Caribbean 40,000

French Caribbean 155,800

Danish Caribbean 4,000

British North America 10,000

Monday, August 14, 2017

17C British Woman by Wenceslaus Hollar (European-born English artist, 1607-1677)

We have few depictions of women in the 17C British American colonies, but the prints by Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677) allow us to see the hairstyles & fashions being worn on the other side of the Atlantic during the early years of the English colonization of America. 

Wenceslaus Hollar (European-born English artist, 1607-1677) Portrait of a Woman 1641

Sunday, August 13, 2017

Original 13 Colonies in North America

Colony Name
Founded By
Year Founded

London Company

New Hampshire
John Mason and Others

Puritans, Separatists, F. Gorges
1628, 1620, 1623

Lord Baltimore

New Haven
Mass. Emigrants
1635, 1638

Rhode Island
R. Williams


North Carolina

New York
Duke of York

New Jersey
Berkeley and Carteret

Eight Nobles

William Penn

Oglethorpe & others

Saturday, August 12, 2017

17C British Woman by Wenceslaus Hollar (European-born English artist, 1607-1677)

We have few depictions of women in the 17C British American colonies, but the prints by Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677) allow us to see the hairstyles & fashions being worn on the other side of the Atlantic during the early years of the English colonization of America. 
Wenceslaus Hollar (European-born English artist, 1607-1677) Portrait of a Woman 1639

Friday, August 11, 2017

1623 Gov Wm Bradford woos his love to join him at Plymouth Colony + Her amazing 1670 Inventory

The widow Alice Carpenter Southworth (c 1590-3-1679) was the daughter of Alexander Carpenter, a Pilgrim who chose to stay in Holland; and she was the widow of Edward Southworth, a silk worker & religious Separatist who left England to settle in Holland, where he died in 1621.
In Holland, young Alice Carpenter had been courted by both William Bradford (1590-1657) & Edward Southworth. According to family tradition, Alice's parents urged her to marry Edward, as he was supposedly related to royalty. Alice & Edward were married in Leiden, Holland, on May 28, 1613. They had 2 sons, Constant born in 1615, & Thomas born in 1616.
William Bradford, born in Yorkshire, England, had become attracted to the thinking of the Separatist church. Puritans wanted to Reform the Church of England; the Separatists believed the Church was beyond redemption due to teaching unbiblical doctrines.

When King James I began to persecute English Separatists in 1609, Bradford fled to the Netherlands, along with many members of the congregation. These Separatists went first to Amsterdam, before settling at Leiden. Bradford, rejected by Alice Carpenter, married his first wife, Dorothy May on December 10, 1613, in Amsterdam. While at Leiden, he supported himself as a cordoroy weaver.

It was the intention of the growing young Southworth family to sail for the British American colonies along the Atlantic; and they were in London, for several months before the Mayflower embarked for Plymouth in 1620. For some reason, perhaps because Edward was ill, the Southworths did not sail with their friends on the Mayflower. Edward died in 1621.

The young Bradford family did make the voyage. While the Mayflower was anchored off Cape Cod in Provincetown Harbor, and William had gone exploring for a site to settle, his wife Dorothy May Bradford, somehow fell off the brig & drowned on December 7, 1620, leaving Bradford a widower with one son, John, born about 1617.

When widower William Bradford, learned that Edward Southworth also had died, he wrote to Alice back in England asking her to marry him. She arrived on the ship Anne on July 14, 1623, leaving her boys behind with relatives. On August 14, 1623, Alice and Governor Bradford were married by Assistant Governor, Isaac Allerton.

The marriage of William Bradford & Alice Carpenter Southworth was noted in a letter written by Captain Emmanuel Altham of the ship Little James to his brother back in England, Sir Edward Altham on September, 1623. Alice had arrived on the ship Anne, and Altham had arrived 10 days later on the Little James. The ships set sail for Plymouth at the same time, but parted company at sea. Both vessels were carrying some of the wives and children of persons already in the colony, who had been left behind in Leiden, when the Mayflower departed in 1620.

"Upon the occasion of the Governor's marriage, since I came, Massasoit was sent for to the wedding, where came with him his wife, the queen, although he hath five wives. With him came four other kings and about six score men with their bows and arrows - where, when they came to our town, we saluted them with the shooting off of many muskets and training our men. And so all the bows and arrows was brought into the Governor's house, and he brought the Governor three or four bucks and a turkey. And so we had very good pastime in seeing them dance, which is in such manner, with such a noise that you would wonder...

"And now to say somewhat of the great cheer we had at the Governor's marriage. We had about twelve pasty venisons, besides others, pieces of roasted venison and other such good cheer in such quantity that I could wish you some of our share. For here we have the best grapes that ever you say - and the biggest, and divers sorts of plums and nuts which our business will not suffer us to look for."

By June of 1624, Governor Bradford & his bride had son William, who would later become Deputy Governor of the colony. Bradford would remain governor of the colony for 31 years, being re-elected each year. Although he was not university educated, he spoke several languages, including Greek & Hebrew. Alice would have access to his library, which was extensive. She would be there as Bradford kept a handwritten journal detailing the history of the first 30 years of Plymouth Colony. Large parts of this journal were published as Of Plymouth Plantation.

Alice sent to England for her children Constant & Thomas Southworth who arrived at Plymouth sometime after 1627. They would join their mother & stepfather plus the 3 children from their marriage: William, Mercy & Joseph. William & Alice would have a long marriage together, from 1624 until Bradford died in 1657. After Bradford's death, the widow Alice actively took part in selling & transfering parcels of land in the towns of Plymouth, Sandwich, & Yarmouth.

Alice died in 1670. Her death was noted in the Records of Plymouth Colony. "On the 26th day of March, 1670, Mistris Allice Bradford, Seni'r, changed this life for the better, haveing attained to fourscore years of age, or therabouts. Shee was a godly matron, and much loved while shee lived, and lamented, tho aged, when shee died, and was honorabley enterred on the 29th day of the month aforsaid, att New Plymouth."

The Will of Alice Carpenter Southworth Bradford
"The Last Will and Testament of mistris Allice Bradford senir of Plymouth Deceased ; exhibited to the Court held att Plymouth in new England the 7th Day of June Anno Dom 1670 on the oathes of Nathaniel: Morton and Leift: Ephraim Morton; as followeth;

"I Allis Bradford senir of the Towne of Plymouth in the Jurisdiction of New Plymouth widdow : being weake in body but of Disposing mind and perfect memory blessed be God; not knowing how soone the Lord may please to take mee out of this world unto himselfe : Doe make and ordaine this to be my last Will and Testament; in manor and forme as followeth; Impr I bequeath my soule to god that gave it and my body to the Dust in hope of a Joyfull resurrection unto glory; Desiring that my body may be Intered as neare unto my Deceased husband; mr Willam Bradford: as Conveniently may be; and as for my worldly estate I Dispose of it as followeth;

Imprs I give and bequeath unto my Deare sister Mary Carpenter; the bed I now lye on with the furniture: therunto belonging and a paire of sheets and a good Cow and a yearling heiffer and a younge mare

Item I give and bequeath unto my son mr Constant Southworth my Land att Paomett: viz all my Purchase land there: with all my rights privilidges and appurtenances therunto belonging; To him and his heires and assignes for ever;

Item I give and bequeath unto my said son Constant Southworth and unto my son mr Joseph Bradford: the one halfe of my sheep; to be equally Devided betwixt them; and the other halfe to my son Captaine Willam Bradford

Item I give unto my said son Joseph Bradford my paire of working oxen and a white heiffer;

Item I give unto my honored frend mr Thomas Prence one of the bookes that were my Deare husbands Library; which of them hee shall Choose;

Item I give unto my Deare Grand child Elizabeth Howland; the Daughter of my Deare son Captaine Thomas Southworth Deceased; the sume of seaven pounds; for the use and benifitt of her son James howland

Item I give unto my servant maide Mary Smith a Cow Calfe to be Delivered her the next springe if I Decease this winter; and if I Doe not Decease this winter; my will is that shee have one Delivered to her out of my estate in som short time after my Decease;

all the rest of my estate not Disposed of all reddy by this my last Will and Testament; as above said;

I give and bequeath unto my sonnes mr Constant Southworth Captaine Willam Bradford and mr Joseph Bradford to be equally Devided amongst them in equall and alike proportions;

In Witnes that this is my Last Will and Testament I the said Allice Bradford have heerunto sett my hand and seale; this twenty ninth day of December anno Dom one Thousand six hundred sixty nine.

Inventory of Alice Carpenter Southworth Bradford
Plymouth Colony Inventory of the goods of Alice Carpenter Southworth Bradford, deceased 1670. Inventories were valued in pounds (L), shillings (s) and pence (d). There were 12 pence (or pennies) to a shilling and 20 shillings to a pound.

Impr 8 Cowes 20 00 00
Item 2 yearlings 01 10 00
Item a 2 yeare old steer 01 10 00
Item a steer of 4 yeare old 02 10 00
Item 1: 2 yeare old heiffer 01 10 00
Item 1 old horse and three mares 10 00 00

Item 17 sheep and 2 lambes 07 00 00

In the New Parlour Chamber
Item 1 bed a bolster and 2 pillowes 03 10 00
Item 1 green rugg and 1 Coverlid & 2 blanketts 03 00 00
Item a bedsteed & Curtaines and vallence 02 00 00
Item 2 Chaires 00 15 00 Item 3 wrought stooles 00 11 00
Item one Table and Carpett 01 05 00
Item a Carved Chest 01 00 00

In the outward Parlour Chamber
a bedsteed and Curtaine and vallence and settle 01 10 00

In the old parlour Chamber
Item a smale bed 2 blanketts 1 Coverlid & a pillow 03 10 00
Item 1 old green Cloth Goune 00 10 00
Item 8 yards of hommade Cloth 01 04 00
Item 2 Chestes 00 10 00
Item 2 Iron beames 1 hogshead 1 barrell and other old lumber 01 05 00

In the studdy in bookes
Item mr Perkins two of them 01 00 00
Item 3 of Doctor WIlletts on genises exodus & Daniel 01 00 00 Item Guicksarraden 00 10 00
Item the history of the Church 00 08 00
Item Peter Martirs Comon places 00 15 00
Item Cartwright on remise Testament 00 10 00
Item the history of the Netherlands 00 15 00
Item Peter Martir on the Romans 00 05 00
Item Moors workes on the New Testament 01 00 00
Item Cottons Concordance 00 08 00
Item Speeds history of the world 01 00 00
Item Weams Christian Sinnagogue & the protracture of the Image of God 00 08 00
Item the Meathod of Phisicke 00 02 00
Item Calvins harmony and his Coment on the actes 00 08 00
Item Downhams 2cond: prte of Christian warfare 00 03 00
Item mr Cottons answare to mr Williams 00 02 00
Item Taylers libertie of Prophesye 00 01 06
Item Gouges Domesticall Dutyes 00 02 06
Item the Institutions or reasons Discused & observations Divine and morall the synode of Dort and the Appologye 00 06 00
Item mr Ainsworth workes the Counterpoison & the tryall 00 02 00
Item mr Ainsworth on Genises exodus & livitticus 00 04 00
Item Calvin on Genises 00 02 06
Item Dike on the Deceightfulnes of mans hard 00 01 06
Item Gifford refuted 00 00 06
Item Dod on the comaundements and others of his 00 03 00
Item 53 smale bookes 01 06 06
Item Calvin on the epistles in Duch: and Divers other Duch bookes 00 15 06

Item 2 bibles 01 00 00
Item the actes of the Church 00 05 00
Item 3 of mr Bridgg: his workes 01 00 00
Item the Lives of the fathers 00 03 00
Item a skin of buffe 00 15 00

In the old Parlour
Item 1 feather bed 1 bolster 2 ruggs and a blankett 03 00 00
Item a bedsted & settle Curtaine and vallence 01 10 00

Item a Court Cubbert 01 00 00
Item a Table and forme and 2 stooles 01 05 00
Item 1 great lether Chaire 00 08 00
Item 2 great wooden Chaires 00 06 00
Item 1 great winscott Chist and a Cubbert 01 00 00
Item 2 boxes and a Deske and a wrought stoole and an old Case of bottles 00 12 00
Item 2 guns and a paire of bandaleers 01 00 00

The plate
Item the great beer bowle 03 00 00
Item another beer bowle 02 00 00
Item a wine Cupp 01 00 00
Item a salt 02 15 00
Item a trencher salt & a Drame Cupp 00 15 00
Item silver spoones 02 09 00
Item a silver dish 01 15 00 Item 2 blanketts 00 10 00

Item 1 Diaper Table Cloth and a Dozen of Diaper Napkins 02 00 00
Item another Diaper Table Cloth and 7 Diaper Napkins 01 10 00
Item 2 holland Table clothes 00 15 00
Item 1 old Cubbert Cloth 00 03 00
Item 4 pillow beers 00 08 00
Item 5 towells 00 05 00

Item 3 holland sheets 01 10 00
Item 2 paire of Cotten and linnine sheets 01 15 00
Item 19 Cotton and linnine Napkins 00 15 00
Item a paire of pillowbears 00 04 00
Item a nother paire of pillowbears 00 02 06
Item 5 shets 01 10 00
Item in shiftes and other wearing linnine 03 00 00
Item a Dingcastor hatt 01 05 00
Item her wearing Clothes and a little peece of bayes 12 00 00

Item a wicker baskett;
galley potts & glasses & such smale thinges of Little vallue 00 05 00

In the great Parlour
Item 2 great Carved Chaires 01 04 00
Item a Table and forme and Carpett 01 05 00
Item 10 Cushens 01 00 00
Item a Causlett and hedpeece 01 10 00
Item 4 great lether Chaires 01 04 00
Item in glasses and earthen ware 00 04 00
Item a Case and five knives 00 05 00
Item a rest & some other odde thinges 00 02 00

In the Kitchen
Item 24 pewter platters and a brim bason 07 00 00
Item 2 fflaggons: 2 quart potts & 3 pint potts 01 00 00
Item 6 smale pewter Dishes and a smale bason 00 10 00
Item 7 porrengers 00 06 00
Item 6 pewter plates 00 09 00
Item 2 pewter Candlestickes & a saltseller 00 06 00
Item 3 Chamber potts and three smale sawcers and pewter funnell; 00 09 00
Item 2 pyr plates 00 06 00
Item a tinning pan and 2 Coverings and a lanthorne 00 02 00
Item 1 great Jugg and 5 smallers ones 4 earthen pans and 2 earthen potts 00 00 12
Item 2 ffrench kettles 01 10 00
Item an old warming pan 00 03 00
Item 1 little ffrench kettle 00 03 00
Item 2 brasse kettles 00 15 00
Item a Duch pan 00 04 00
Item 3 brasse skilletts 00 04 00
Item 1 old brasse skimer and Ladle 00 01 00
Item 3 brasse Candle stickes and a brasse pestle and Mortor 00 09 00
Item a paire of Andjrons 00 10 00
Item a Chafeing Dish and a stew pan 00 10 00
Item 1 Iron skillett and an Iron kettle 00 10 00
Item 2 Iron potts 00 16 00
Item 2 paire of pothangers and 2 paire of pott hookes 00 08 00
Item 2 paire of tonggs and 2 fier shovells 00 05 00
Item 2 spitts and a gridjron and an Iron Driping pan 00 10 00
Item a paire of Iron rakes 00 10 00
Item 4 Dozen of trenchers 00 02 06
Item a box Iron 2 gallon glasse bottles and three pottle bottles 00 05 00

Item a spining wheele
a bucking tubb
2 pailes
2 kinmnells
two bowls
4 smale wooden Dishes
1 tray
2 Burchen trayes 00 16 00
Item Scales & waightes with an Iron beame 00 07 00
Item 2 beer barrells 00 04 00
Item a prsell of sheepes woole 00 03 00
Item 2 smale swine 00 10 00
Item in Mony 00 16 00
Item a silver bodkin 00 04 00
Item in provision 01 10 00
Item one halfe hogshed and a small prsell of salt 00 03 00
Item one paire of oxen in Mr Joseph Bradfords hand

Sume Totall 162 17 00

Captaine William Bradford and Mr Joseph Bradford haveing the Cattle after named in theire Costody when the estate was prised;
Did give in the number and kind of them upon theire oathes as followeth:
Item 4 Cowes 2 Calves one oxe 4 yeare old; one heiffer and hee was of two yeare old and 14 sheep besides lambes; sworne to these were in Captaine Bradford Costody June 1670
Item 2 oxen 4 Cowes 2 yearlinges one two yeare old steer 1 horse 2 mares 2 young Calves were in Mr Joseph Bradfords Custody and hee was sworne to this June 1670.

Thursday, August 10, 2017

17C British Woman by Wenceslaus Hollar (European-born English artist, 1607-1677)

We have few depictions of women in the 17C British American colonies, but the prints by Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677) allow us to see the hairstyles & fashions being worn on the other side of the Atlantic during the early years of the English colonization of America. 
Wenceslaus Hollar (European-born English artist, 1607-1677) Portrait of a Woman 1645

Wednesday, August 9, 2017

Advertising Tobacco Over There -1577

1577 Of the Tabaco and of His Greate Vertues

The earliest known image of a man smoking, from Tabaco by Anthony Chute. 1590s. Chute was an Elizabethan poet and pamphleteer.  Text from John Frampton's translation of Nicholas Monardes. It was published in 1577 as Joyfull Newes our of the Newe Founde Worlde. The entire work can be found in a 1925 edition with an introduction by Stephen Gaselee, published by Alfred A. Knopf, New York. The text was standardized for easier reading by Michael L. Wolfe, 1996

Of the Tabaco and of His Greate Vertues
THIS herb, which commonly is called tobacco, is an herb be of much antiquity, and known amongst the Indians, and in especially among them of the new Spain, and after that those countries were gotten by our Spaniards, being taught of the Indians, they did profit themselves of those things, in the Wounds which they received in their Wars, healing themselves therewith, to the great benefit of them

Within this few years there has been brought to Spain of it, more to adorn Gardens with the fairness thereof, and to give a pleasant sight, rather then that it was thought it had the marvelous Medicinal virtues which it hash, now we do use of it more for his virtues then for his fairness. For surely they are. such which put admiration

It is growing in many parts of the Indies, but ordinarily in moist places, and shadow places, and it is needful that the ground where it is sown, be well tilled, all that it be fruitful ground in all times it is sown, in the hot countries. But in the collide countries it must be sown in the month of March, for that it may defend it self from the frost

The proper name of it amongst the Indians is Pecielt, for the name of Tobacco is given to it of our Spaniards, by reason of an land that is named Tobacco

It is an Herb that does grow and come to be very great: many times to be greater then a Lemon tree, it does cast out one stem from the Root which grows up right, without declining, to any parts, he does cast out many Bowes, straight that well new they be equal with the principal stem of the tree, his Leaf is well nere like to the Leaf of a Sydron tree, they come to be very great, and be of color green, the Plant is heavy, they be in the Garden as Sidrons and Oranges are. For that all the year they are green, and have leaves, and if any wither, they be those that are lowest, in the highest parts of all the Plants, there does grow out the flower, the which is after the manner of white Campanillia, and in the middest of Carnation color, it has a good show when it is dry, it is like to black Poppy seed, and is it is shut up the seed which is very small, and of the color of a dark Tauny.

The Root is great, conformable to the greatness of the Plants, divided into many parts, and it is like to wood in substance, the which being parted, it has the heart within, like unto the color of Saffron, and being tossed, it has some bitterness with it. The Rind comes away easily, we know not that the root has any virtue at all. Of only the Leaves we know the virtues, I which we will speak of, although that I do believe that the root has Medicinal virtues enough, the which the time shall discover. And some will say that it has the virtue of Rhubarb, but I have not experimented it as yet, they do keep the leaves after they be dry in the shadow for the effects that we will speak of, and they be made powder, for to use of them in place of the Leaves, for it is not in all parts, the one and the other, is to be kept a great time, without corruption, his complexion is hot and dry in the second degree, it has virtue to heat and to dissolve, with some binding and comforting it gleweth together, and does soder the fresh wounds, and does heal them, the filthy wounds and sores it does cleanse and reduce them to a perfect health, as it shall he spoken of foreword, and so we will speak of the virtues of these Herbs, and of the things that it does profit, every one particularly

This Herb Tobacco has particular virtue to heal griefs of the head, and in especially coming of cold causes, and so it cures the headache when it comes of a cold humor, or of a windy cause, the Leaves must be put hot to it upon the grief, and multiplying them the time that is needful, until the grief be taken away. Some there be that do anoint them with the Oil of Oranges, and it does a very good work

In any manner of grief that is in the body or any part thereof it helps, being of a cold cause, and applied hereunto it takes it away, not without great admiration

In griefs of the breast it does make a marvelous effect, and in especially in those that do cast out matter and rottenness at the mouth, and in them that are short breathed. And any other old evils making of the herb a seething and with Sugar made a Syrup, and being taken in little quantity, it does cause to expel the Matters, and rottenness of the breast marvelously, and the smoke being taken at the mouth, does cause that the matter be put out of the breast, of them that do

In the grief of the stomach, caused of cold causes, or wince, the leaves being put very hot, it does take it away, and dissolves it by multiplying of them, until it be taken away. And it is to be noted, that the leaves are to be warmed better then any other, amongst Ashes or Embers very hot, thrusting the herbs into them, and so to warm them well, and although they be put to with some Ashes, it makes the work better, and of more strong effects

In Opilations of the stomach, and of the inner parts principally, this herb is a great remedy; for that it does dissolve them, and consumes them, and this same it does in any other manner of Opilations or hardness, that is in the belly, the cause being of a cold humor, or of windiness

They must take the herb green, and stamp it, and with those stamped leaves rub the hardness a good while, and at the time as the Herb is in the Mortar a stamping, let there be put to it a few drops of Vinegar, that his work may be made the better, and after the place is rubbed where the pain is, then put upon it one leaf or leaves of the Tobacco being hot, and so let it alone till the next day, and then do the like again, or in place of the leaves put a Linen clothe wet, in the hot Juice. Some there be, that after they have rubbed it with the stamped leaves, they do anoint it with ointments, made for the like evils, and upon it they put the leaves or the juice of the Tobacco. And surely with this cure they have dissolved great and hard opilations, and very old swellings. In the grief of the stone, of the Kidneys and Raines, this Herb does great effects, by putting the leaves into Ashes, or Embers, hot, that they may warm well, and then being put upon the grief, multiplying it as often as it is needful. It is necessary in the Seethinges that is used to be made for Glisters to put into them with the other hinges, the Leaves of this Herb: for that they shall profit much, and likewise for Fomentations and Plasters, that they shall make

In griefs of winces they make the like effect, taking away the pains that does come of the windiness, applying the Leaves after the same sort as it is stated

In the grief of women, which is called the evil of the Mother, putting one leaf of this herb Tobacco very hot, in the manner as it is stated, it does manifest profit: it must be put upon the Navel. And under it some does use to put first of all, things of good smell upon the Navel, and then upon that they put the leaf, in that they do find most profit, is to put the Tacamahaca, or the oil of liquid Amber, and Balsam, and Carana, any thing of these put to the Navel, and kept to it continually, that it may cleave unto it, does manifest profit in griefs of the Mother

In one thing, the women that dwell in the Indies, do celebrate this herb, that is in the evil breathing at the mouth of children, when they are over filled with meat, and also of great people, anointing their bellies with lamp oil, and putting some of those leaves in ashes hot to their bellies, and also to their shoulders, it does take away their naughty breathing: and it does make that they go to the stool, putting it hereunto, the times that it is needful, if the leaves be ashes it is the better

In Worms, and in all kind of them, it kills them, and does expel them marvelously, the seething of the herb made a syrup delicately, taken in very little quantity, and the juice thereof put on the navel, it is needful after this be done to give a Glister, that may void them out, and expel them out of the guts

In griefs of the Joints being of a cold cause it makes a marvelous work, the Leaves of this Tobacco being put hot upon the grief, the like does the Juice put upon a little clothe hot. For that it does dissolve the humor, and takes away the pains thereof, if it be a hot cause it does hurt, saving when the humour has been hot, and the subtle is dissolved, and the gross remains. that then it does profit as if the cause were cold, and it is to be understood, that the leaves being put, where as is grief of the said cause, in any part of the body, that it will profit much

In swellings or in cold Impostumes, it does dissolve and undo them, washing them with the hot Juice, and putting the beaten leaves, after they be stamped, or the leaves being whole of the stated Tobacco upon it

In the Tooth ache when the grief is of a cold cause, or of cold Rumes, putting to it a little Ball made of the leaf of the Tobacco, washing first the soothe with a small clothe wet in the Juice, it takes away the pain, and does stay it, that the putrefaction go not forward: in hot causes it does not profit, and this remedy is so common that every one heals

This Herb does marvelously heal the Chilblaines, rubbing them with the stamped leaves, and after putting hands and Feet in hot water, with Salt, and keeping them warm, this is done with great experience in many

In Venom and venomous Wounds our Tobacco has great experience, which has been known a little time past, that when the wild people of the Indies, which an eat mans flesh do shoot their Arrows, they do anoint them with an herb or Composition made of many poisons, with the which they do shoot at all things that they would kill, and this Venom is so evil, and pernicious, that it kills without remedy, and they that be hurt die with great pains and accidentes, and with madness, unless that they had found remedy for so great an evil. A few years past they did put to their Wounds Sublimatum, and so were remedied, and surely in those parts they have suffered much with this in vexation of poison

A little whiles past, certain wild people going in their Boats to Saint Jhon Depuerto Rico, for to shoots at Indians, or Spaniards, if that they might find them, they came to a place and killed certain Indians, and Spaniards, and they did hurt many, and as by chance there was no Sublimatum at that place to heal them, they did remember to put upon the wounds the Juice of the Tobacco, and the Leaves stamped. And God would, that putting it upon the hurts, the griefs, madness, and accidents, wherewith they died, was mitigated, and in such sort they were delivered of that evil, that the strength of the Venom was taken away, and the wounds were healed, of the which there was are great admiration, the which being known by them of the Land, they do use it in other hurts and wounds, that they do take when they do fight with the wild people, and now they have no fear of them, by reason they have found so great a remedy, in a thing so desperate

This Herb has also virtue against the Herb called of the Crossbow shooter, that our hunters do use to kill the wild beasts with all, which herb is venom most strong, and does kill with out remedy, the which the king's pleasure was to prove, he did command to make experience thereof, and they did wound a little Dog in the throat. And did put forthwith in the wound the herb of the Crossbow shooter, and after a little while, they put in to the self same wound that they had anointed with the Crossbow shooters Herb, a good quantity of the Juice of Tobacco, and the stamped leaves upon it, and they tied the dog, and he escaped not without great admiration of all men that saw him. Of the which the excellent Physician of the Chamber of his majestic the Doctor Barnarde in the margin of this book, that saw it, by the commandment of his Majesty, said these words. I did this experience by the commandment of the king's Majesty, I did wound the Dog with a knife, and after I did put the crossbow shooters herb into the wound and the herb was chosen, the dog was taken of the herb, and the Tobacco and his Juice put into the wound, the dog escaped and remained whole

In the venomous Carbuncles, the Tobacco being put in the manner as is said does extinguish the malice of the venom, and it does that which all the works of Surgery can do, until it be whole. The same thing it does in biting of venomous beasts, for it does kill and extinguish the malice of the venom, and heals them.

In wounds newly hurt and cuttings, strokes, pricks, or any other manner of wound, our Tobacco does marvelous effects. For that it does heal them and makes them sound, the wound must be washed with wine, and procure to anoint the sides of it, taking away that which is superfluous, and then to put the Juice of this herb, and upon it the stamped leaves, and being well bound it shall stand until the next day that they shall return to dress it, after the same fashion they shall keep good order in their meat, using the diet necessary, and if it be needful of any evacuation by stool, the cause being great, let it be done what shall be convenient. And with this order they will heal, without any need of any more Surgery then this herb. Here in this Country, and in this City they know not what to do, having cut or hurt themselves, but to run to the Tobacco, as a most ready remedy, it does marvelous works, without any need of other Surgery, but this only herb. In restraining the flux of blood of the wounds it does most marvelous works, for that the Juice and the Leaves being stamped, is sufficient to restrain any flux of blood

In old Sores it is marvelous the works and the effects that this Herb does, for it heals them wonderfully, making clean and mundifiyng them of all that is superfluous, and of the rottenness, that it hash, and does bring up the flesh, reducing them to perfect health, the which is so common in this City that every man does know it, and I having ministered it to many people as well men as women, in great number, and being grieved of ten, and of twenty years they have healed old rotten sores in legs, and other parts of the body, with only this remedy to the great admiration of all men

The order of the Cure that is to be healed with this herb is this following. The old rotten sores although t they be cankered, let the sick man be purged with the counsel of a Physician, and let him blood if it be needful, and then take this Herb and pound it in a Mortar, and take out the Juice and put it into the Sore, and then after the manner of a Plaster put the stamped leaves upon it which are the Leaves that the Juice is taken out of, and this do once every day eating good Meats, and not exceeding in any disorder, for otherwise it will not profit. And doing this it will make clean the evil flesh being totter, and superfluous, until it come to the whole flesh, and is not to be marveled if that the wound be made very great. For the evil must be eaten up, until it come to the good, and with the same cure putting less quantity of juice it will incarnate, and reduce it to perfect health, in such sort that it does all the works of Surgery, that all the Medicines of the world may do, without having need of any other manner of medicine

This work does cure ode Sores, with so much admiration: and not only in men, but in brute beasts. As at this day in all parts of the Indies, where you have any cattle having wounds or gaules and the country being hot and moist over much, it does soon rot them, and very quickly come to be cankered, and for this cause, much great cattle do dye. And to remedy this and the worms that do increase in the sores, they had for remedy to put into the sores Sublimatum: for that in this remedy they did find more benefit then in any other, that they had used. And for that the Sublimatum had there so high a price, many times it was more worth then the cattle that it healed. And for this cause and for having found in the Tobacco so much virtue for to heal new wounds and rotten, they did accord and agree together to use the Tobacco, in the healing of beasts, as they had done in the cure and remedy of men, putting the Juice of the Tobacco into the wounds, and washing it therewith, and putting upon it the stamped leaves of the Tobacco, after that the Juice is taken from it, and it is of so great efficacy and virtue, that it kills the worms, and makes clean the sore, eating away the evil flesh, and it does engender new flesh until it be whole, as in the other things which we have spoken of, the like it does in the gaules of the beasts of Carriage, the Juice being put and the beaten leaves whereof the Juice comes of the Tobacco, as it is said: although it be cankered, it does make them clean, and does incarnate them, and cures and helps them. And so the Indians do carry it, when they do journey, for this purpose and effect, and it does the like profit, that the juice does

I saw a man that had certain old sores in his nose, whereby he did cast out from him much matter, and daily did rot and canker, and I caused him to take at his nose the juice of this Tobacco, and so he did, and at the second time, he did cast out from him, more then twenty little worms, and afterward a few more, until that he remained clean of them, and using it so certain days, he did heal of the sores, that he had in the inner part of his nose: and if he had tarried any longer, I think that there had remained nothing of his nose, but all had been eaten away, as it does happen to many, which we do see without them. And being writing of this, a daughter of a gentle man of this City, had many years a certain manner of dry scabs, or well near scurvy in her head, I had cured her, and done unto her many benefits, universal, and particular: and also Masters of Surgery had done their diligence, and all did not profit. And a gentlewoman, which had the charge of her, as she heard me say one day, much good of the Tobacco that it did good, and was profitable, for so many infirmities, she sent for it, and did rub hard the decease that the wench had, and that day she was very evil, and was as though she had been foolish, and the gentlewoman did not let, in seeing her after that sort to rub her harder, and then the wench did not feel so much grief, but that the dry scabs began to fall, and the white scruff of her head in such sort, it did make clean and healed her head, with doing of it certain days, that she healed of her scurvy decease very well, without knowing what she did

One of the marvels of this Herb, and that which does bring most admiration, is, the manner how the priests of the Indies did use of it, which they did in this manner: when there was amongst the Indians any manner of business, of great importance, in the which the chief gentlemen called Casiques, or any of the principal people of the Country, having necessity to consult with their Priests, in any business of importance: then they went and propounded their matter to their chief Priest, forthwith in their presence, he took certain leaves of the Tobacco, and cast them into the fire, and did receive the smoke of them at his mouth, and at his nose with a Cane, and in taking of it, he fell down upon the ground, as a dead man, and remaining so, according to the quantity of the smoke that he had taken, and when the herb had done his work, he did revive and awake, and gave them their answers, according to the visions, and illusions which he saw, whiles he was rapt of the same manner, and he did interpret to them, as to him seemed best, or as the Devil had counseled him, giving them continually doubtful answers, in such sort, that howsoever it fell out, they might say that it was the same, which was declared, and the answer that they made

In like sort the rest of the Indians for their pastime, do take the smoke of the Tobacco, for to make them selves drunk withal, and to see the visions, and things that do represent to them, wherein they do delight: and other times they took it to know their business, and success, because conformable to that, which they had seen being drunk therewith, even so they might judge of their business. And as the Devil is a deceiver, and has the knowledge of the virtue of Herbs, he did show them the virtue of this Herb, that by the means thereof, they might see their Imaginations, and visions, that he has represented to them, and by that means does deceive them

To have Herbs that have the like virtue, is a common thing, and in the book of the Physicians, Dioscorides does say, that one dram of the root of Solatro, being taken in wine, which root is very strange, and furious, does provoke sleep greatly, and does make him that takes it, to dream of things variable, and does represent unto him terrible imaginations, and visions, and others does give delectation, and pleasure. Of the Anise seed they say, being eaten at the hour, when that they shall sleep, it does make a pleasant, and delectable dream. The Readishe does make them grievous, and very heavy, and of so many other herbs, which shall be large to speak of, the which of this matter, the ancient writers does write of

Diego Gratia de Guerta, in the book that he wrote of the Spicery and Drugs of the Oriental Indies, does say, that in those parts there is an Herb, which is called Bague, the which being mingled with things of sweet smell, they make of it a confection of excellent smell and taste: and when the Indians of those parts, will deprive them selves of judgment, and see visions that does give them pleasure, then they take a certain quantity of this confection, and in taking of it, they remain deprived of all judgment, and while the virtue of their Medicine does endure, they do receive much delight, and they do see things, whereby they do receive pleasure, and be glad of it. There was a mighty Emperor, being Lord of many Realms, stated unto Martine Alfonso de Sofa, viceroy that was of the East India that when he would see Realms, and Cities, and other things, of the which he did receive pleasure, that he would then take the Bague, made in a certain confection, and that in doing of it, he did receive pleasure. The use of this confection is very common, and very much used amongst the Indians of those parts, and they do sell it in the public market, for this effect

The Indians of our Occidental Indies, do use of the Tobacco for to take away the weariness, and for to take lightsomnesse of their labor, which in their Dances they be so much wearied, they remain so weary, that they can scarcely stir: and because that they may labor the next day, and return to do that foolish exercise, they do take at the mouth and nose, the smoke of the Tobacco, and they remain as dead people, and being so, they be eased in such sort, that when they be awakened of their sleep, they remain without weariness, and may return to their labor as much more, and so they do always, when they have need of it: for with that sleep they do receive their strength and be much the lustier

The black people that have gone from these parts to the Indies, has taken the same manner and use of the Tobacco, that the Indians have, for when they see themselves weary, they take it at the nose, and mouth, and it does happen unto them, as unto our Indians, lying as though they were dead three or four hours: and after they do remain lightened, without any weariness, for to labor again: and they do this with so great pleasure, that although they be not weary, yet they are very desirous for to do it: and the thing is come to so much effect, that their masters do chasten them for it, and do burn the Tobacco, because they should not use it, whereupon they go to the desserts, and secret places to do it, because they may not be permitted, to drink themselves drunken with Wine, and therefore, they are glad to make then selves drunken with the smoke of Tobacco: I have seen them do it here, and happen to them as is stated. And they do say, that when they come out of the same trance, or dream, they find themselves very lusty, and they do rejoice to have been after the same sort and manner, saying that thereof they do receive no hurt

These barbarous people do use of the like things, to take away weariness, and not only it is used in our Occidental Indies, but is also a common thing in the Oriental Indies. And also in the Portugal Indies, for this effect, they do sell the Opium in their Shops, even as they sell Conserva, with the which the Indians do use to ease them selves, of their labor that they do take, and to be merry, and not to feel pains, of any great labor of the body, or of mind that may come unto their, and they call it there amongst them selves Aphion. Of this Aphion the Turks do use for this effect. The Soldiers and Captains that go to the wars, when they do labor much, from the time that they be lodged, that they may take rest, they take Aphion, and sleep with it, and they remain lightened of their labor: The most principal people takes the Bague, and it has a better taste, and a better smell, there is put to it much Amber, and Musk and Cloves, and other spices: That surely it is a thing of admiration, to see that these Barbarous people do take such Medicines, and so many of them do take it, and that it does not kill them, rather they take it for health and remedy, for their necessity

I saw an Indian of those parts, that in my presence did ask Apothecary a quart of Opium, and I asked him wherefore he would have it, and he told me that he took it to put away weariness, when he did feel him self over much grieved, and afflicted with labor, and he took the half of that as he carried, for the Apothecary gave him more then a pint for twelve pence, and therewith he slept so much, that when he awoke from sleep, he found him self very much eased of his weariness, in such sort, that he might continue his labor. I did marvel at it, and it seemed to me a thing of mockery: seeing that five or six grains, be the most that wee can give to a sick person, how strong so ever that he be, and this being very well prepared, does cause many times accidentes of death. And many years after standing in the Shop of an other Apothecary of this City, there called an other Indian, of the same Oriental Indies, and he did ask of the Apothecary, that he should give him Aphion, the which Apothecary understood him not, and I remembering myself of the other Indian, I caused him to show to the Indian Opium, and in showing it to him, he stated that it was that, which he asked, and he bought a quarter of a Pint of it, and I asked of the Indian, wherefore he would have it, and he told me the same that the other Indian did: that it was because he might labor, and ease him self of his weariness and that he did bear burdens, and that he should help to discharge a Ship: wherefore he would take the one half that he might therewith labor, and the other half after he had labored, that therewith he might take ease, and rest. Then I gave credit to the first Indian, of that he stated unto me, and since I have believed that, which I have seen, and read, in those parts to be a thing in common, for the like effects. And truly it is a thing worthy of great consideration, that five grains of Opium does kill us, and three score does give them health, and rest

The Indians does use the Tobacco, for to suffer the dryness, and also for to suffer hunger, and to pass days with out having need to eat or drink, when they shall travel by any dessert, or dis-peopled Country, where they shall find neither water, nor meat. They do use of these little balls, which they make of this Tobacco, they take the leaves of it, and do chew it, and as they go chewing of them, they go mingling with them certain powder, made of the shells of Cockles burned. and they go mingling it in the mouth all together, until that they make it like to dough, of the which they make certain little balls, little greater than Peason, and they put them to dry in the shadow, and after they keep them, and use them in this form following

Then they use to travail by ways, where they find no water nor meat: They take a little ball of these, and they put it between the lower lip and the teethe, and they go chewing it all the time that they do travel. and that which they do chew, they do swallow it down, and in this sort they do journey, three or four days, without having need of meat, or drink, for they feel no hunger, dryness, nor weakness, nor travel does trouble them. I do think that to journey after this sort, is the cause they go chewing continually the little balls: they do bring phlegm into the mouth, and do return to swallow them into the stomach, the which does retain the natural heat, which does go consuming, and maintaining them selves of them, the which we do see happen in many beasts, for that much time of the Winter, they be shut up into their Caves, and hollow places of the earth, and do pass there without any meat. And for that they have to consume the natural heat, of the fatness, which they had gotten in the Summer, the Bear being a great and fierce beast, much time of the Winter is in his Cave, and does live without meat, or drink, with only chewing his paws, the which perhaps he does for the stated cause: this is the substance which I have gathered of this Herb, so celebrated and called Tobacco, for that surely it is an Herb of great estimation, for the great virtues that it has, as we have stated.

Tuesday, August 8, 2017

17C British Woman by Wenceslaus Hollar (European-born English artist, 1607-1677)

We have few depictions of women in the 17C British American colonies, but the prints by Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677) allow us to see the hairstyles & fashions being worn on the other side of the Atlantic during the early years of the English colonization of America. 
Wenceslaus Hollar (European-born English artist, 1607-1677) Portrait of a Woman 1635

Monday, August 7, 2017

Tobacco in 17C Maryland

Tobacco Cultivation
More than a century before Maryland's founding, the Spanish cultivated the Mayans' drug plant, tobacco, in the West Indies. It was grown in France by the mid-1550s, & in China, Japan, & South Africa before the settlement of Virginia. Farmers in England grew tobacco legally until 1619 (& illegally afterward), when a law aimed at generating import duties gave the Virginia Company a virtual monopoly of the market. By 1634, Virginia had been a royal colony for a decade, & nothing prohibited Maryland farmers from entering the profitable tobacco trade from their start.
A teaspoon of tobacco seeds was enough to plant six acres. The seeds were started in a seedbed, then the seedlings transplanted to mounds spaced like those for corn over a roughly cleared field. Both corn & tobacco required similar handling-hoeing down weeds, picking off bugs, chopping the stalk at harvest time & allowing the tobacco leaves or corn kernels to dry. The next year, the planter simply chose another spot, a few feet away, & repeated the routine. After a few seasons, however, planters would have noticed their plants were less robust than at first, & generally, that the plants produced less per field. This decline led farmers to think that the crop had depleted the soil of nutrients, leading to its "exhaustion."
 Cartouche Shipping Hogsheads of Tobacco from Frye-Jefferson map of Virginia, 1755. Farmers responded by letting "old fields" "rest" for up to twenty years. In order to keep producing tobacco, growers moved to new fields, thus using up more & more land & deserting exhausted fields. Over decades, this practice made for a forlorn-looking landscape & tagged tobacco growers with the reputation of being slovenly & unskilled farmers at best, & rapacious at worst. "Soil exhaustion," actually caused by microbes, also figured in arguments over slavery & for agricultural reform.
For most of the 17th century, tobacco held complete sway over Maryland agriculture. When prices were high, little else mattered; when prices fell, even ruinously, growers simply awaited a reversal of fortune. Rather than building fences, improving meadows, & storing up winter feed, as good livestockmen knew to do, tobacco planters and their servants, both men and women, simply let the animals run in the woods to fend for themselves, or, at most, grew an orchard for their scrounging. Because nothing else earned as much money per acre as tobacco, the "sotweed" remained the mainstay of Maryland agriculture for better & worse. The first black slaves arrived in Virginia in 1619, & in 1660, only 3% of the colonists were black. Until the early-mid 1700’s, white convicts & voluntarily indentured white people, male and female, formed a greater part of the tobacco workforce.  And until something else offered a similar opportunity for wealth, or even a living, tobacco dominated Maryland's agricultural practices & economy.
The Problem with Tobacco:  What did we know & when did we know it?

As early as the 1600’s a number of physicians began to note that heavy smoking of tobacco in pipes appeared to be associated with an increased risk of oral cancers. The German surgeon Samuel Thomas von Smmerring (1755-1830) voiced concern over the apparent link between lip cancer & pipe smoking in 1795. Others had made similar observations including the apparent correlation between the location of cancerous tumors of the lip & mouth & the side of the mouth that smokers were accustomed to holding their pipe.

English surgeon Sir Percivall Pott (1714–1788) began to investigate cancer in the mid 1700’s & discovered that chimney sweeps had an increased rate of scrotal cancer. His investigation into other cancers in chimney sweeps & other professions indicated that cancer could have environmental triggers. Pott concluded that soot & smoke were directly linked to an increase in cancer risk & as such, he became concerned over the health effects of smoking tobacco. Although Pott was the first to formally investigate the association of soot & smoke with cancer, the fact that chimney sweeps appeared to be at higher risk was noted as early as 1602.

In 1761, English physician John Hill (c 1716-1775), who was often called a quack doctor & quarreled with the Royal Society  made the first formal investigation into tobacco usage & cancer. He noted the increased incidence of oral & nasal cancer in both tobacco smokers & users of snuff. In his report Cautions Against the Immoderate Use of Snuff he stated “snuff is able to produce swellings & excrescences in the nose, “and he believed these to be cancerous."  Dr. G. Terry Sharrer 

Sunday, August 6, 2017

17C British Woman by Wenceslaus Hollar (European-born English artist, 1607-1677)

Wenceslaus Hollar (European-born English artist, 1607-1677) Ornatus Muliebris Anglicanus; Print made by 1640. British Library. An English lady with curly hair standing whole length to right, looking towards the viewer; wearing a pearl necklace, rope of pearls over her shoulder, gown with broad trim and lace collar fastened with two brooches, holding a feather fan in her right hand.

We have few depictions of women in the 17C British American colonies, but the prints by Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677) allow us to see the hairstyles & fashions being worn on the other side of the Atlantic during the early years of the English colonization of America. 
The artist Hollar was born in 1607, the son of an upper middle-class civic official. He left his native Prague at age 20. He was almost blind in one eye but became a skilled artist. His 1st book of etchings was published in 1635, in Cologne, when Hollar was 28. The following year his work caught they eye of English art collector the Earl of Arundel who visiting the continent.  Hollar became a part of his household, settling in England early in 1637. He left London for Antwerp in 1642, where he continued to work on a variety of projects for 10 years.  In 1652, he returned to England, working on a number of large projects for the publishers John Ogilby & William Dugdale. Hollar died in London in 1677. By his life's end, he had produced nearly 3000 separate etchings.

Saturday, August 5, 2017

Legal Rights for Women in the 17th Century Colonies

People settling in the British American colonies during the 17th century were searching for political or legal refuge; adventure and profit; or religious freedom.

Despite professed beliefs in enlightenment and reason, independence for most women in the British American colonies and the new republic was nearly impossible. Individualism and freedom were reserved for men in colonial society throughout the 17th and 18th centuries.

Women living in the Atlantic colonies usually did not have the right to vote or hold office. Some colonies and states did allow women to vote briefly, but by 1787 women in all states except New Jersey had lost the right to vote.

If they were married, women could not own land in their names. Men usually willed real estate to surviving sons and only personal property to surviving daughters, ensuring that land would pass from man to man.

If a woman had somehow acquired land or economic security before she married through inheritance or her own hard work, all her property automatically was awarded to her new spouse when she married. In England and its colonies, the common law of coverture placed married women under the direction of their husbands.

Married women could not make contracts, even for their own labor. A wife had no legal identity separate from her husband's. The interests of a wife and her children were to be determined and represented solely by her husband.

Property was power in the colonies, and married women would have neither.

Divorces were rare, and usually men were allowed to beat their wives, just as they beat their slaves and servants and dogs and horses. When a wife chose to run away from an unbearable marriage, her husband could advertise for her capture and return in local newspapers; just as he could advertise for the return of his runaway slaves and servants.

Many widows chose not to remarry because of these laws; however, most widows with younger children remarried quickly for financial and physical assistance in raising her growing family.

Friday, August 4, 2017

17C British Woman by Wenceslaus Hollar (European-born English artist, 1607-1677)

We have few depictions of women in the 17C British American colonies, but the prints by Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677) allow us to see the hairstyles & fashions being worn on the other side of the Atlantic during the early years of the English colonization of America. 
Wenceslaus Hollar (European-born English artist, 1607-1677) Ornatus Muliebris Anglicanus; Print made by 1640. British Library. An English lady with curly shoulder-length hair standing whole length to left, looking to left; wearing pearls in her hair, pearl necklace, jewelled rope on her waist over her bodice, lace-trimmed collar fastened with a brooch, and gloves. 

The artist Hollar was born in 1607, the son of an upper middle-class civic official. He left his native Prague at age 20. He was almost blind in one eye but became a skilled artist. His 1st book of etchings was published in 1635, in Cologne, when Hollar was 28. The following year his work caught they eye of English art collector the Earl of Arundel who visiting the continent.  Hollar became a part of his household, settling in England early in 1637. He left London for Antwerp in 1642, where he continued to work on a variety of projects for 10 years.  In 1652, he returned to England, working on a number of large projects for the publishers John Ogilby & William Dugdale. Hollar died in London in1677. By his life's end, he had produced nearly 3000 separate etchings.

Thursday, August 3, 2017

Women Over There - Queen Elizabeth after Her Coronation - From Roanoke to Jamestown

Elizabeth I began her rule as England's monarch in 1558. Never-married Queen Elizabeth avidly studied a variety of languages and cultures. She encouraged her nation to explore the world.

In 1587, Sir Walter Raleigh had sent an expedition to settle Roanoke Island in Pamlico Sound (between what today is mainland North Carolina and its Outer Banks) in hopes of bringing riches home to the crown and establishing a base from which to fight the Spanish. Colonists were left to establish themselves, while waiting for a ship from England to return to with needed provisions to keep the settlement functioning.

Worried about the coming of the Spanish Armada, the queen commandeered every able ship to remain in England to fight, leaving no seaworthy vessels to return to the “Roanoke” colony to resupply the colonists. When a ship finally arrived back on America's Atlantic coast with provisions 3 years later, all 121 colonists were gone, including the first English baby born in America, Virginia Dare. Elizabeth would not see a successful English colony in the new world during her lifetime.

Although Elizabeth believed that she had been called by God to rule, she was savvy enough to give some governing powers and religious freedoms to her restless subjects. And England emerged from her 50 year reign as a cultural and economic power. When Elizabeth died in 1603, only 4 years before the settlement of Jamestown in Virginia.

A Timeline of Events and References

Leading Up To and Through the Founding of Jamestown

1558 Queen Elizabeth succeeds Queen Mary.

1562 Jean Ribault establishes Huguenot colony (Charles Fort) at Port Royal in South Carolina.

John Hawkins makes his first voyage to the West Indies.

1563 Charles Fort abandoned.

1564 Second colony of Huguenots under Rene de Laudonniere established on St. John's River in Florida.

John Hawkins makes his second voyage to the West Indies and Guinea.

1565 St. Augustine established.

1567 John Hawkins departs on third voyage.

1568 Hawkins fights Spanish at Battle of Vera Cruz, later set ashore at Tampico, Mexico, where three of his men began a 12 month march to the north, reaching Cape Breton.

1576 Martin Frobisher's first voyage.

1577 Martin Frobisher's second voyage.

1578 Martin Frobisher's third voyage.

England and Netherlands sign treaty to fight Spain.

Humphrey Gilbert sailed for America with 350 men but was forced to return.

1580 Sir Francis Drake returns to England from voyage around the world.

1583 Sir Humphrey Gilbert's voyage to Newfoundland; his ship was lost on the return voyage.

1584 Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe reach Roanoke Island in July, returned to England in September. 

1585 Raleigh's fleet of seven vessels under Richard Grenville and Ralph Lane, with 108 men, reach Roanoke Island in June.

1586 In June, Sir Francis Drake arrives from Florida and removes the Lane colony to England.

Sir Richard Grenville and three ships arrive at Roanoke in August.

1587 John White with 150 men, women, and children sent by Sir Walter Raleigh to plant the Cittie of Raleigh on the Chesapeake Bay, landed at Hatorask on July 22.

1590 John White returns to Roanoke Island.

1592 Capt. Christopher Newport sailed for the West Indies.

1596 Capts. Amias Preston and George Somers sail to the West Indies.

1602 Sir Walter Raleigh sent Samuel Mace of Weymouth on a voyage to Virginia (North Carolina) to gather plant materials and to search for survivors of the Lost Colony.

Capt. Bartholomew Gosnold, Capt. Bartholomew Gilbert, Capt. Gabriel Archer, and others sent on voyage to New England coast.

Nova Scotia visited regularly by English traders.

1603 Capt. Martin Pring sent to New England coast by Bristol merchants.

Capt. Bartholomew Gilbert sent on voyage to Chesapeake Bay; Gilbert and 4 others went ashore (likely the Eastern Shore) and were killed by Indians.

1603 Queen Elizabeth dies & James VI of Scotland becomes James I.

This timeline was prepared by the Jamestown Rediscovery project of Preservation Virginia.

Wednesday, August 2, 2017

17C British Woman by Wenceslaus Hollar (European-born English artist, 1607-1677)

We have few depictions of women in the 17C British American colonies, but the prints by Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677) allow us to see the hairstyles & fashions being worn on the other side of the Atlantic during the early years of the English colonization of America. 
Wenceslaus Hollar (European-born English artist, 1607-1677) Ornatus Muliebris Anglicanus; Print made by 1640. British Library. An English lady with shoulder-length curly hair standing whole length, directed slightly to left, looking to left, touching her left arm with a fan held in her right hand; wearing a ribbon in her hair, pearl earrings and necklace, rope of pearls and jewel on low-cut dress. 

The artist Hollar was born in 1607, the son of an upper middle-class civic official. He left his native Prague at age 20. He was almost blind in one eye but became a skilled artist. His 1st book of etchings was published in 1635, in Cologne, when Hollar was 28. The following year his work caught they eye of English art collector the Earl of Arundel who visiting the continent.  Hollar became a part of his household, settling in England early in 1637. He left London for Antwerp in 1642, where he continued to work on a variety of projects for 10 years.  In 1652, he returned to England, working on a number of large projects for the publishers John Ogilby & William Dugdale. Hollar died in London in1677. By his life's end, he had produced nearly 3000 separate etchings.

Tuesday, August 1, 2017

1586 Ralph Lane's Report on the Colony at Roanoke

The first English Colony of Roanoke, originally consisting of 100 householders, was founded in 1585, 22 years before Jamestown and 37 years before the Pilgrims landed in Massachusetts, under the ultimate authority of Sir Walter Raleigh. In 1584 Raleigh had been granted a patent by Queen Elizabeth I to colonize America.
This Colony was run by Ralph Lane c 1530-1603 after Sir Richard Grenville, who had transported the colonists to Virginia, returned to Britain for supplies. These colonists were ill-prepared and not particularly clever, because, although they depended upon the local Indians for food, they also antagonized the Indians by such tactics as kidnapping them and holding them hostage in exchange for information. Unfortunately for the colonists, who were desperately in need of supplies, Grenville's return was delayed. As a result, when Sir Francis Drake put in at Roanoke after destroying the Spanish colony of St. Augustine, the entire colony returned with Drake to England.

When Drake picked up these colonists, he left behind 15 of his own men, who were never heard from again. This foreshadowed one of the great mysteries of North America, Roanoke's so-called "Lost Colony" of 90 men, 17 women and 9 children, founded in 1587 and discovered to be missing in 1590, but for the word "Croatan" carved on a post. Although both the English and the Spanish searched for clues to the colony's disappearance for many years, the mystery has never been solved.

The first Roanoke colony lasted a total of ten months. This account, a fascinating description of American before European settlement, is taken from Lane's report on the adventure to Sir Walter Raleigh.

To the Northwest the farthest place of our discovery was to Chawanook distant from Roanoak about 130 miles. Our passage thither lies through a broad sound, but all fresh water, and the channel of a great depth, navigable for good shipping, but out of the channel full of shoals...
Chawanook itself is the greatest province and Seigniorie lying upon that river, and that the town itself is able to put 700 fighting men into the field, besides the force of the province itself.
The king of the said province is called Menatonon, a man impotent in his limbs, but otherwise for a savage, a very grave and wise man, and of a very singular good discourse in matters concerning the state, not only of his own country, and the disposition of his own men, but also of his neighbors round about him as well far as near, and of the commodities that each country yields.
When I had him prisoner with me, for two days that we were together, he gave me more understanding and light of the country than I had received by all the searches and savages that before I or any of my company had had conference with: it was in March last past 1586. Among other things he told me, that going three days' journey in a canoe up his river of Chawanook, and then descending to the land, you are within four days' journey to pass over land Northeast to a certain king's country, whose province lies upon the Sea, but his place of greatest strength is an island situated, as he described unto me, in a bay, the water round about the island very deep.
Out of this bay he signified unto me, that this King had so great quantity of pearls, and does so ordinarily take the same, as that not only his own skins that he wears, and the better sort of his gentlemen and followers are full set with the said pearls, but also his beds, and houses are garnished with them, and that he has such quantity of them, that it is a wonder to see...
The king of Chawanook promised to give me guides to go overland into that king's country whensoever I would: but he advised me to take good store of men with me, and good store of victual, for he said, that king would be loth to suffer any strangers to enter into his country, and especially to meddle with the fishing for any pearls there, and that he was able to make a great many of men in to the field, which he said would fight very well...
And for that not only Menatonon, but also the savages of Moratoc themselves do report strange things of the head of that river, it is thirty days, as some of them say, and some say forty days' voyage to the head thereof, which head they say springs out of a main rock in that abundance, that forthwith it makes a most violent stream: and further, that this huge rock stands so near unto a Sea, that many times in storms (the wind coming outwardly from the sea) the waves thereof are beaten into the said fresh stream, so that the fresh water for a certain space, grows salt and brackish: I took a resolution with myself, having dismissed Menatonon upon a ransom agreed for, and sent his son into the pinnace to Roanoak, to enter presently so far into that river with two double whirries, and forty persons one or other, as I could have victual to carry us, until we could meet with more either of the Moraroks, or of the Mangoaks, which is another kind of savages, dwelling more to the westward of the said river: but the hope of recovering more victual from the savages made me and my company as narrowly to escape starving in that discovery before our return, as ever men did, that missed the same...
And that which made me most desirous to have some doings with the Mangoaks either in friendship or otherwise to have had one or two of them prisoners, was, for that it is a thing most notorious to all the country, that there is a province to the which the said Mangoaks have resource and traffic up that river of Moratoc, which has a marvelous and most strange mineral. This mine is so notorious among them, as not only to the savages dwelling up the said river, and also to the savages of Chawanook, and all them to the westward, but also to all them of the main: the country's name is of fame, and is called Chaunis Temoatan.
The mineral they say is Wassador, which is copper, but they call by the name of Wassador every metal whatsoever: they say it is of the color of our copper, but our copper is better than theirs: and the reason is for that it is redder and harder, whereas that of Chaunis Temoatan is very soft, and pale: they say that they take the said metal out of a river that falls very swift from high rocks and hills, and they take it in shallow water: the manner is this.
They take a great bowl by their description as great as one of our targets, and wrap a skin over the hollow part thereof, leaving one part open to receive in the mineral: that done, they watch the coming down of the current, and the change of the color of the water, and then suddenly chop down the said bowl with the skin, and receive into the same as much ore as will come in, which is ever as much as their bowl will hold, which presently they cast into a fire, and forthwith it melts, and does yield in five parts at the first melting, two parts of metal for three parts of ore.
Of this metal the Mangoaks have so great store, by report of all the savages adjoining, that they beautify their houses with great plates of the same: and this to be true, I received by report of all the country, and particularly by young Skiko, the King of Chawanooks son of my prisoner, who also himself had been prisoner with the Mangoaks, and set down all the particulars to me before mentioned: but he had not been at Chaunis Temoatan himself: for he said it was twenty days' journey overland from the Mangoaks, to the said mineral country, and that they passed through certain other territories between them and the Mangoaks, before they came to the said country.
Upon report of the premises, which I was very inquisitive in all places where I came to take very particular information of by all the savages that dwelt towards these parts, and especially of Menatonon himself, who in everything did very particularly inform me, and promised me guides of his own men, who should pass over with me, even to the said country of Chaunis Temoatan, for overland from Chawanook to the Mangoaks is but one day's journey from sun rising to sun setting, whereas by water it is seven days with the soonest: These things, I say, made me very desirous by all means possible to recover the Mangoaks, and to get some of that their copper for an assay, and therefore I willingly yielded to their resolution: But it fell out very contrary to all expectation, and likelihood: for after two days' travel, and our whole victual spent, lying on shore all night, we could never see man, only fires we might perceive made along the shore where we were to pass, and up into the country, until the very last day.
In the evening whereof, about three of the clock we heard certain savages call as we thought, Manteo, who was also at that time with me in the boat, whereof we all being very glad, hoping of some friendly conference with them, and making him to answer them, they presently began a song, as we thought, in token of our welcome to them: but Manteo presently betook him to his piece, and told me that they meant to fight with us: which word was not so soon spoken by him, and the light horseman ready to put to shore, but there lighted a volley of their arrows among them in the boat, but did no hurt to any man...
Choosing a convenient ground in safety to lodge in for the night, making a strong corps of guard, and putting out good sentinels, I determined the next morning before the rising of the sun to be going back again, if possibly we might recover the mouth of the river, into the broad sound, which at my first motion I found my whole company ready to assent unto: for they were now come to their dog's porridge, that they had bespoken for themselves if that befell them which did, and I before did mistrust we should hardly escape.
The end was, we came the next day by night to the river's mouth within four or five miles of the same, having rowed in one day down the current, much as in four days we had done against the same: we lodged upon an island, where we had nothing in the world to eat but pottage of sassafras leaves, the like whereof for a meat was never used before as I think. The broad sound we had to pass the next day all fresh and fasting: that day the wind blew so strongly and the billow so great, that there was no possibility of passage without sinking of our boats. This was upon Easter eve, which was fasted very truly. Upon Easter day in the morning the wind coming very calm, we entered the sound, and by four of the clock we were at Chipanum, whence all the savages that we had left there were left, but their wares did yield us some fish, as God was pleased not utterly to suffer us to be lost: for some of our company of the light horsemen were far spent. The next morning we arrived at our home Roanoak...
This fell out the first of June 1586, and the eight of the same came advertisement to me from captain Stafford, lying at my lord Admiral's Island, that he had discovered a great fleet of three and twenty sails: but whether they were friends or foes, he could not yet discern. He advised me to stand upon as good guard as I could.
The ninth of the said month he himself came unto me, having that night before, and that same day traveled by land twenty miles: and I must truly report of him from the first to the last; he was the gentleman that never spared labor or peril either by land or water, fair weather or foul, to perform any service committed unto him.
He brought me a letter from the General Sir Francis Drake, with a most bountiful and honorable offer for the supply of our necessities to the performance of the action we were entered into; and that not only of victuals, munition, and clothing, but also of barks, pinnaces, and boats; they also by him to be victualed, manned and furnished to my contentation.
The tenth day he arrived in the road of our bad harbor: and coming there to an anchor, the eleventh day I came to him, whom I found in deeds most honorably to perform that which in writing and message he had most courteously offered, he having aforehand propounded the matter to all the captains of his fleet, and got their liking and consent thereto.
With such thanks unto him and his captains for his care both of us and of our action, not as the matter deserved, but as I could both for my company and myself, I (being aforehand prepared what I would desire) craved at his hands that it would please him to take with him into England a number of weak and unfit men for any good action, which I would deliver to him; and in place of them to supply me of his company with oar-men, artificers, and others.
That he would leave us so much shipping and victual, as about August then next following would carry me and all my company into England, when we had discovered somewhat, that for lack of needful provision in time left with us as yet remained undone.
That it would please him withal to leave some sufficient Masters not only to carry us into England, when time should be, but also to search the coast for some better harbor, if there were any, and especially to help us to some small boats and oar-men...
While these things were in hand, the provision aforesaid being brought, and in bringing aboard, my said masters being also gone aboard, my said barks having accepted of their charge, and my own officers, with others in like sort of my company with them (all which was dispatched by the said general the 12 of the said month) the 13 of the same there arose such an unwonted storm, and continued four days...
This storm having continued from the 13 to the 16 of the month, and thus my bark put away as aforesaid, the general coming ashore made a new proffer unto me; which was a ship of 170 tons, called the bark Bonner, with a sufficient master and guide to tarry with me the time appointed, and victualed sufficiently to carry me and my company into England, with all provisions as before: but he told me that he would not for anything undertake to have her brought into our harbor, and therefore he was to leave her in the road, and to leave the care of the rest unto myself, and advised me to consider with my company of our case, and to deliver presently unto him in writing what I would require him to do for us; which being within his power, he did assure me as well for his captains as for himself, should be most willingly performed.
Hereupon calling such captains and gentlemen of my company as then were at hand, who were all as privy as myself to the general's offer; their whole request was to me, that considering the case that we stood in, the weakness of our company, the small number of the same, the carrying away of our first appointed bark, with those two special masters, with our principal provisions in the same, by the very hand of God as it seemed, stretched out to take us from thence; considering also, that his second offer, though most honorable of his part, yet of ours not to be taken, insomuch as there was no possibility for her with any safety to be brought into the harbor: seeing furthermore, our hope for supply with Sir Richard Grenville, so undoubtedly promised us before Easter, not yet come, neither then likely to come this year, considering the doings in England for Flanders, and also for America, that therefore I would resolve myself with my company to go into England in that fleet, and accordingly to make request to the general in all our names, that he would be pleased to give us present passage with him...
From whence the general in the name of the Almighty, weighing his anchors (having bestowed us among his fleet) for the relief of whom he had in that storm sustained more peril of wreck than in all his former most honorable actions against the Spaniards, with praises unto God for all, set sail the nineteenth of June 1596, and arrived in Portsmouth the seven and twentieth of July the same year.