Saturday, June 30, 2018

Anne Arundell, Lady Baltimore (1615-1649) Never actually visited the New Colony.

Anne Arundell, Lady Baltimore (1615-1649).  Anne Calvert, Baroness Baltimore (née Hon. Anne Arundell; c. 1615/1616-23 July 1649) was an English noblewoman, daughter of Thomas Arundell, 1st Baron Arundell of Wardour, by his 2nd wife Anne Philipson, & wife of Lord Baltimore, who founded the Province of Maryland colony. She married Cecil Calvert, 2nd Lord Baltimore, (1605-1675), in 1627 or 1628 at age 13, when he was 18. At that time, his father Sir George Calvert,1st Lord Baltimore, (1578-1632), was embarking on his first colonial endeavor in Avalon located in Newfoundland & 6 years before son Cecil after the death of his father, supervised the sailing of the 2nd colonial enterprise in 1633 to the Chesapeake Bay area, north of the earlier colony of Virginia, which was named "Maryland" after Henrietta Maria, the wife and Queen of King Charles I, (1600-1649). A settlement arrangement for the marriage between them was made on 20 March 1627/28. Of her 9 children with Lord Baltimore, 3 survived to adulthood.

"Anne Arundell was born in 1615 into an elite English family of noble lineage. Anne's father, Sir Thomas Arundell of Wardour Castle in Wiltshire, England had served under King James I and her great-grandmother had been related by marriage to King Henry VIII. 

"Anne was reputed to be very beautiful, with many potential husbands. But in 1628 when she was only 13, she married Cecil Calvert, the second Lord Baltimore and a close friend of the family. Like the Calverts, Anne's family was Catholic, and her father was arrested a number of times because he refused to give up his religion. Cecil's marriage to Anne was fortunate for the creation of Maryland.

"Anne inherited lands and money from her father, which she and Cecil used to fund the new colony. But there was more to Anne than just her money. She played an important role in raising her son Charles, the future Lord Baltimore, as well as Cecil's younger half-brother Philip, who served as Governor and Chancellor of Maryland. 

"During her 20-year marriage to Cecil, Anne bore nine children, but only three lived to become adults. She was very well-loved and upon her death at age 34, her husband Cecil composed a memorial verse for her tomb in England in which he described her as "the most beautiful and best wife." The memorial continued, "Here lieth Anne Arundell, Lady Baltimore. Farewell to you most lovely of earthly beauties." 

"Although neither she nor her husband ever visited the colony that they helped found, Anne was very interested in Maryland. She decorated the ceiling of their home in England with plaster reliefs of the Ark and the Dove, the ships that brought the first colonists to Maryland.

"Indirectly, Anne played an important role in the early years of Maryland, and she seems to have been well-loved and respected. In 1649, the Maryland Assembly chose to honor Anne after her death by naming Anne Arundel County after her."  Papenfuse, Edward C. "The Forgotten Mothers of Maryland." Speech to the Society of the Ark and Dove, November 19, 1995.

After George Calvert’s death, Anne’s father, Lord Wardour, invested heavily in the Calvert family's proposed New World colony.  In 1632, King Charles I signed the Charter of Maryland—named for Queen Consort Henrietta Maria—granting the colony to Cecil Calvert. Cecil & his late father George envisioned the new colony on the other side of the Atlantic as a land where fellow Roman Catholics could escape the religious persecution then prevalent in England. Although he never visited Maryland, Cecil Calvert invested more of his family's monies to ensure the colony a was prosperous & a safe refuge for persecuted Catholics.  Cecil Calvert decided to spend his life in familiar Middlesex, dyong there in 1675.He sent his younger brother, Leonard, to the new colony in 1634. Leonard sailed with the ships Ark & Dove, & the hopeful colonists established a settlement at St. Mary’s.

In 1642, the English Civil War broke out between the Roman Catholic royalists supporting Charles I & the Protestant Parliamentarians. In 1649, the Maryland General Assembly passed An Act Concerning Religion which provided some religious protection to all Christians. Lord Baltimore replaced the Catholic Acting Governor Thomas Greene with the Virginia Protestant William Stone.  Stone lured a group of Virginia Puritans to Maryland with the promise of land & guaranteed freedoms. In December of 1649, the first European settlement in what would become Anne Arundel County was founded by these Puritans on the north shore of the Severn River opposite present-day Annapolis. It was called Providence. In 1650, the Maryland General Assembly officially created Anne Arundel County.

From 1650 through 1695, a series of religious, regional & political struggles occurred in Maryland. In March of 1655, the Battle of the Severn was fought at the mouth of the Severn River. Governor Stone’s forces, under Lord Baltimore’s orders, sailed up the Chesapeake Bay from St. Mary’s City. His goal was to re-establish the authority of the Calverts over Providence, but the Puritans decisively defeated the Governor’s forces & gained temporary control of the colony.  Oliver Cromwell restored Cecil Calvert’s control in 1657, but in 1688 King William III annulled the Calvert family Charter & declared Maryland a royal colony. The General Assembly voted in 1694 to move the capital from St. Mary’s City to Anne Arundell Towne. In 1695 the town was renamed Annapolis in honor of then Princess Anne, daughter of Queen Mary. Annapolis became the political center of the colony & the seat of government for Anne Arundel County, as it remains today.

Thursday, June 28, 2018

A Planter's Wife in Maryland

Most men in colonial Maryland became planters, thus most women became planters’ wives. A typical planter’s wife in early Maryland probably first came to the colony as an indentured servant. Most women who came to the Chesapeake did not come as part of a family. Many hoped to make a better life for themselves in the New World by marrying a wealthier man who could acquire land & provide for a family.

A woman was probably between 18 & 25 years old when she first arrived in the colony, but she was not free to marry right away. Because most women did not have the money to pay for their passage to America, they became indentured servants who usually worked for a master for four or five years to pay off the cost of their voyage. Women who worked for wealthy families probably worked as house servants, but less well-off families often needed their female servants to help in the fields, growing tobacco or corn. This would be new & different for women coming to Maryland, because English women did not typically do field work.

Women also risked becoming very sick or even dying from a number of new illnesses that settlers encountered in the New World. But if they survived their first few years, they had a good chance of finding a husband who could help provide for & protect them, & most women married when they reached their mid-20s. Because a lot more men than women came to Maryland, there were plenty of potential husbands. This gave women a little more power than women in England, often allowing them to increase their social status.

Some men were so desperate for a wife that they paid a female servant’s master for her time so she was free to marry before she had served her full term. But once free, life was not easy for most women. Either she or her husband was likely to die within seven years of their marriage. She would probably have three or four children, but only two of these would live to be adults because of the harsh conditions in the colony & poor medical knowledge.

As the wife of a planter, a woman might still have to help in the fields if her husband wasn’t rich enough to hire a servant. But she would spend most of her time preparing food & running the household. Cooking required much more work back then. In order to make a loaf of bread, a woman had to shell the corn from the ears, pound the corn into flour, & then use the flour to make bread. She would also have to make her own butter & cheese using the milk from the family’s cows.

Chances were that she would die before she was 43 years old. Life was hard for those who first came to Maryland, but some women were still better off than they might have been in England.

Carr, Lois Green & Lorena S. Walsh. "A Planter's Wife: The Experience of White Women in Seventeenth Century (17th) Maryland." Williamsburg, VA, Institute of Early American History & Culture, 1977.

Tuesday, June 26, 2018

Portrait of a 17C New England British-American Woman

1679 Mrs. Richard Patteshall (Martha Woody) and Child. Atr Thomas Smith, American, c 1650–1691 Mseum of Fine Arts, Boston

Among the earliest depictions of a mother and child surviving from colonial New England, Mrs. Richard Patteshall (Martha Woody) and Child illustrates the influence of Dutch and Flemish painting on portraits executed in Boston during the last quarter of the seventeenth century. Consistent with those European standards of realism, the figures of Mrs. Patteshall and her young daughter suggest the illusion of bulk and depth and the integration of parts. This approach differs radically from the Elizabethan focus on surface patterns, texture, and detail seen in the portraits of Margaret and Robert Gibbs by the Freake-Gibbs painter.

Scholar Lorinda B. R. Goodwin tells us that portraiture of the merchant class in Colonial New England, particularly family scenes, can be seen as a collaboration, perhaps even a conspiracy (in the best sense of the word), between the artist and the sitters in the attempt to preserve a moment, not necessarily a photo-realistic record of persons and artifacts but a reflection of aspirations and real social achievement. While social interaction in the polite world might be seen as fleeting, guided improvisation, portraits self-consciously fix a more permanent impression: spaces, artifacts, and personal posture are carefully chosen to convey a sense of status and power. In the abstract, the organization of human bodies and artifacts in a domestic space is often indicative of individual and family power; in the material world, objects ranging from room decor to the sitters’ adornments are much more personal statements of power and identity within (and beyond) the household. 

Friday, June 22, 2018

Portrait of an 17C New England British-American Woman

Maria Catherine Smith (c. 1670-1706), c. 1690 

Previous New England artists worked in the Elizabethan court style, including the unknown painter who executed portraits of the Freake family. That style emphasized line and the decorative use of color, whereas baroque painters strove to convey the effects of light and shadow to create believable illusions of forms in space. This portrait typified the baroque style through the artist's concern with modeling as well as with his relatively somber palette and free brushwork.The American Antiquarian Society, which owns this painting, tells us that among Smith's paintings, Maria Catherina Smith borrows most directly from baroque conventions. Smith painted oval spandrels as a framing device and represented his daughter in a décolleté dress typically found in late-seventeenth-century British mezzotint portraits of aristocratic and royal women.

Thursday, June 21, 2018

1630 A Model of Christian Charity John Winthrop (1588-1649)

John Winthrop (1588-1649) was the 1st governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony & among the Puritan founders of New England.

A Model hereof.

GOD ALMIGHTY in his most holy and wise providence, hath so disposed of the condition of’ mankind, as in all times some must be rich, some poor, some high and eminent in power and dignity; others mean and in submission.

The Reason hereof.

1 Reason. First, to hold conformity with the rest of his works, being delighted to show forth the glory of his wisdom in the variety and difference of the creatures, and the glory of his power in ordering all these differences for the preservation and good of the whole; and the glory of his greatness, that as it is the glory of princes to have many officers, so this great king will have many stewards, counting himself more honored in dispensing his gifts to man by man, than if he did it by his own immediate hands.

2 Reason. Secondly, that he might have the more occasion to manifest the work of his Spirit: first upon the wicked in moderating and restraining them: so that the rich and mighty should not eat up the poor, nor the poor and despised rise up against their superiors and shake off their yoke. Secondly, in the regenerate, in exercising his graces in them, as in the great ones, their love, mercy, gentleness, temperance etc., in the poor and inferior sort, their faith, patience, obedience, etc.

3 Reason. Thirdly, that every man might have need of others, and from hence they might be all knit more nearly together in the bonds of brotherly affection. From hence it appears plainly that no man is made more honorable than another or more wealthy etc., out of any particular and singular respect to himself, but for the glory of his creator and the common good of the creature, man. Therefore, God still reserves the property of these gifts to himself as Ezek. 16:17—he there calls wealth, his gold and his silver,1 and Prov. 3:9—he claims their service as his due, honor the Lord with thy riches, etc.2 All men being thus (by divine providence) ranked into two sorts, rich and poor; under the first are comprehended all such as are able to live comfortably by their own means duly improved; and all others are poor according to the former distribution.

…There is a time when a Christian must sell all and give to the poor, as they did in the Apostles’ times. There is a time also when Christians (though they give not all yet) must give beyond their ability.… Likewise, a community of peril calls for extraordinary liberality, and so doth community in some special service for the church. Lastly, when there is no other means whereby our Christian brother may be relieved in his distress, we must help him beyond our ability rather than tempt God in putting him upon help by miraculous or extraordinary means.

This duty of mercy is exercised in three kinds: giving, lending and forgiving.

Quest[ion]. What rule shall a man observe in giving in respect of the measure?

Ans[wer]. If the time and occasion be ordinary, he is to give out of his abundance. Let him lay aside as God hath blessed him.3 If the time and occasion be extraordinary, he must be ruled by them: taking this withal, that then a man cannot likely do too much, especially if he may leave himself and his family under probable means of comfortable subsistence.

Object[ion]. A man must lay up for posterity, the fathers lay up for posterity and children, and he is worse than an infidel that provideth not for his own.4

Ans[wer]. For the first, it is plain that it being spoken by way of comparison, it must be meant of the ordinary and usual course of fathers, and cannot extend to times and occasions extraordinary. For the other place, the Apostle speaks against such as walked inordinately, and it is without question that he is worse than an infidel who through his own sloth and voluptuousness shall neglect to provide for his family.…

Quest[ion]. What rule must we observe in lending?

Ans[wer]. Thou must observe whether thy brother hath present or probable or possible means of repaying thee, if there be none of those, thou must give him according to his necessity, rather than lend him as he requires; if he hath present means of repaying thee, thou art to look at him not as an act of mercy, but by way of Commerce, wherein thou art to walk by the rule of justice; but if his means of repaying thee be only probable or possible, then is he an object of thy mercy, thou must lend him, though there be danger of losing it, Deut. 15:7. If any of thy brethren be poor etc., thou shalt lend him sufficient.… 5

Quest[ion]. What rule must we observe and walk by in cause of community of peril?

Ans[wer]. The same as before, but with more enlargement towards others and less respect towards ourselves and our own right. Hence it was that in the primitive Church they sold all, had all things in common, neither did any man say that which he possessed was his own.6 Likewise in their return out of the captivity, because the work was great for the restoring of the church and the danger of enemies was common to all, Nehemiah directs the Jews to liberality and readiness in remitting their debts to their brethren, and disposing liberally to such as wanted, and stand not upon their own dues which they might have demanded of them.7 Thus did some of our Forefathers in times of persecution in England, and so did many of the faithful of other churches, whereof we keep an honorable remembrance of them; and it is to be observed that both in Scriptures and latter stories of the churches that such as have been most bountiful to the poor saints, especially in those extraordinary times and occasions, God hath left them highly commended to posterity.…

…The definition which the Scripture gives us of love is this: Love is the bond of perfection. First it is a bond or ligament. Secondly it makes the work perfect. There is no body but consists of parts, and that which knits these parts together, gives the body its perfection, because it makes each part so contiguous to others as thereby they do mutually participate with each other, both in strength and infirmity, in pleasure and pain. To instance in the most perfect of all bodies; Christ and his Church make one body; the several parts of this body considered apart before they were united, were as disproportionate and as much disordering as so many contrary qualities or elements, but when Christ comes, and by his spirit and love knits all these parts to himself and each to other, it is become the most perfect and best proportioned body in the world, Eph. 4:16: Christ, by whom all the body being knit together by every joint for the furniture thereof, according to the effectual power which is in the measure of every perfection of parts, a glorious body without spot or wrinkle;8 the ligaments hereof being Christ, or his love, for Christ is love, 1 John 4:8. So this definition is right. Love is the bond of perfection.

…The next consideration is how this love comes to be wrought. Adam in his first estate was a perfect model of mankind in all their generations, and in him this love was perfected in regard of the habit. But Adam rent himself from his Creator, rent all his posterity also one from another; whence it comes that every man is borne with this principle in him: to love and seek himself only, and thus a man continueth till Christ comes and takes possession of the soul and infuseth another principle, love to God and our brother, and this latter having continual supply from Christ, as the head and root by which he is united, gets the predomining in the soul, so by little and little expels the former. 1 John 4:7: love cometh of God and every one that loveth is borne of God,9 so that this love is the fruit of the new birth, and none can have it but the new creature.

…From the former Considerations arise these conclusions. First, this love among Christians is a real thing, not imaginary. Secondly, this love is as absolutely necessary to the being of the body of Christ, as the sinews and other ligaments of a natural body are to the being of that body. Thirdly, this love is a divine, spiritual, nature; free, active, strong, courageous, and permanent; undervaluing all things beneath its proper object and of all the graces, this makes us nearer to resemble the virtues of our heavenly father.…

It rests now to make some application of this discourse, by the present design, which gave the occasion of writing of it. Herein are four things to be propounded; first the persons, secondly the work, thirdly the end, fourthly the means.

For the persons. We are a company professing ourselves fellow members of Christ, in which respect only though we were absent from each other many miles, and had our employments as far distant, yet we ought to account ourselves knit together by this bond of love, and, live in the exercise of it, if we would have comfort of our being in Christ.…

For the work we have in hand. It is by a mutual consent, through a special overvaluing providence and a more than an ordinary approbation of the churches of Christ, to seek out a place of cohabitation and consortship under a due form of Government both civil and ecclesiastical. In such cases as this, the care of the public must over sway all private respects, by which, not only conscience, but mere civil policy, doth bind us. For it is a true rule that particular estates cannot subsist in the ruin of the public.
The end is to improve our lives to do more service to the Lord; the comfort and increase of the body of Christ, whereof we are members; that ourselves and posterity may be the better preserved from the common corruptions of this evil world, to serve the Lord and work out our Salvation under the power and purity of his holy ordinances.
For the means whereby this must be effected: they are twofold, a conformity with the work and end we aim at. These we see are extraordinary, therefore we must not content ourselves with usual ordinary means. Whatsoever we did, or ought to have, done, when we lived in England, the same must we do, and more also, where we go. That which the most in their churches maintain as truth in profession only, we must bring into familiar and constant practice; as in this duty of love, we must love brotherly without dissimulation, we must love one another with a pure heart fervently. We must bear one another’s burdens. We must not look only on our own things, but also on the things of our brethren. Neither must we think that the Lord will bear with such failings at our hands as he dothe from those among whom we have lived.…
…Thus stands the cause between God and us. We are entered into covenant with Him for this work. We have taken out a commission. The Lord hath given us leave to draw our own articles. We have professed to enterprise these and those accounts, upon these and those ends. We have hereupon besought Him of favor and blessing. Now if the Lord shall please to hear us, and bring us in peace to the place we desire, then hath he ratified this covenant and sealed our Commission, and will expect a strict performance of the articles contained in it; but if we shall neglect the observation of these articles which are the ends we have propounded, and, dissembling with our God, shall fall to embrace this present world and prosecute our carnal intentions, seeking great things for ourselves and our posterity, the Lord will surely break out in wrath against us; be revenged of such a [sinful] people and make us know the price of the breaches of such a covenant.

Now the only way to avoid this shipwreck, and to provide for our posterity, is to follow the counsel of Micah, to do justly, to love mercy, to walk humbly with our God.10 For this end, we must be knit together, in this work, as one man. We must entertain each other in brotherly affection. We must be willing to abridge ourselves of our superfluities, for the supply of other’s necessities. We must uphold a familiar commerce together in all meekness, gentleness, patience and liberality. We must delight in each other; make other’s conditions our own; rejoice together, mourn together, labor and suffer together, always having before our eyes our commission and community in the work, as members of the same body. So shall we keep the unity of the spirit in the bond of peace.11 The Lord will be our God, and delight to dwell among us, as his own people, and will command a blessing upon us in all our ways. So that we shall see much more of his wisdom, power, goodness and truth, than formerly we have been acquainted with. We shall find that the God of Israel is among us, when ten of us shall be able to resist a thousand of our enemies; when he shall make us a praise and glory that men shall say of succeeding plantations, “the Lord make it likely that of New England.” For we must consider that we shall be as a city upon a hill. The eyes of all people are upon us. So that if we shall deal falsely with our God in this work we have undertaken, and so cause him to withdraw his present help from us, we shall be made a story and a by-word through the world. We shall open the mouths of enemies to speak evil of the ways of God, and all professors for God’s sake. We shall shame the faces of many of God’s worthy servants, and cause their prayers to be turned into curses upon us till wee be consumed out of the good land whither we are a going.

I shall shut up this discourse with that exhortation of Moses, that faithful servant of the Lord, in his last farewell to Israel, Deut. 30: Beloved there is now set before us life and good, Death and evil, in that we are commanded this day to love the Lord our God, and to love one another, to walk in his ways and to keep his Commandments and his Ordinance and his laws, and the articles of our Covenant with him, that we may live and be multiplied, and that the Lord our God may blesse us in the land whither we go to possess it. But if our hearts shall turn away, so that we will not obey, but shall be seduced, and worship and serve other Gods, our pleasure and profits, and serve them; it is propounded unto us this day, we shall surely perish out of the good land whither we pass over this vast sea to possess it;12

Therefore let us choose life—that we, and our seed may live, by obeying His voice and cleaving to Him, for He is our life and our prosperity.13

1 Ezekiel 16:17: “Thou hast also taken thy fair jewels of my gold and of my silver, which I had given thee, and madest to thyself images of men, and didst commit whoredom with them.…”
2 Proverbs 3:9: “Honour the Lord with thy substance, and with the firstfruits of all thine increase.”
3 An allusion to 1 Corinthians 16:2: “Upon the first day of the week let every one of you lay by him in store, as God hath prospered him, that there be no gatherings when I come.”
4 An allusion to 1 Timothy 5:8: But if any provide not for his own, and specially for those of his own house, he hath denied the faith, and is worse than an infidel.
5 Deuteronomy 15:7-8: If there be among you a poor man of one of thy brethren within any of thy gates in thy land which the Lord thy God giveth thee, thou shalt not harden thine heart, nor shut thine hand from thy poor brother: But thou shalt open thine hand wide unto him, and shalt surely lend him sufficient for his need, in that which he wanteth.
6 As recounted in Acts 2:44-45.
7 As recounted in Nehemiah 5.
8 Winthrop here summarizes his reading of Ephesians 4 and 5, in part paraphrasing 4:13-16, which describes the church as a body made of many parts, each member learning to fill a particular role, all striving together in love to become the earthly embodiment of Christ, “the perfect man.” He is also remembering 5:27, which likens the church to a body made perfect by Christ’s atoning sacrifice.
9  “Beloved, let us love one another: for love is of God; and every one that loveth is born of God, and knoweth God.”
10 Micah 6:8.
11 Ephesians 4:3.
12 Winthrop quotes Deuteronomy 30:15-18, inserting what he understands to be the contemporary application of “other gods.”
13 A summary of Deuteronomy 30:19-20.

Wednesday, June 20, 2018

Portrait of an 17C Boston British-American Girl

The Freake Limner (American Colonial Era Painter, active 1670-c 1680) Margaret Gibbs of Boston c 1670 Age 7.

Not long after Boston was settled, a wealthy merchant named Robert Gibbs commissioned three paintings of his young children. They are among the finest of the few extant portraits made in New England in the seventeenth century. The artist who painted Margaret Gibbs, the eldest at seven, and her brothers—Robert, aged four and a half, and Henry, aged one and a half (Clay Center for the Arts and Sciences, Charleston, West Virginia)—is unknown. However, it is thought that the same artist created likenesses of John and Elizabeth Freake and their baby Mary (in two portraits now at the Worcester Art Museum, Massachusetts) in 1674. The artist is thus known as the Freake-Gibbs painter and is considered one of the most skilled portraitists of the seventeenth-century colonies, possessing an exceptional sense of design and an admirable feel for color. Probably trained in provincial England, the Freake-Gibbs painter worked in a typically English flat style derived from Elizabethan art, which emphasized color and pattern. As was customary for portraits at the time, the children, such as Margaret, appear like adults in pose and manner.

Tuesday, June 19, 2018

1677 Revenge of Marblehead Women on Indians

Source: Source: Robert Roule, Deposition, MS 252, Edward E. Ayer Collection, The Newberry Library, Chicago, Illinois.

I Robert Roules of Marblehead, mariner, aged thirty years or thereabouts, belonging to the catch William and Sarah of Salem, do upon oath say, that Joseph Bovey went out master of the said ketch upon a fishing voyage to the eastern coast.

After we had caught, and being about half laden with fish, and riding at an anchor at port La Tour, near cape Sable, and on the easterly side thereof, on the 7th of this instant, July, it being saturday, purposing here to take in wood and water, and in two days to be again upon our fishing design, but on the Lords day) being the 8th instant, in line dawaning of the day, there came suddenly on board of us a canoe of Indians, in number nine or ten, as near as could judge, with their arms ready fixed, loaded and cocked.

I first discovered them, and dropped down upon deck to save myself from their shot. They immediately fired upon us, and their shot chiefly struck against the windlass, and so did not hurt us. I then called to them, and said What for you kill Englishmen? They answered me, If Englishmen shoot we kill—if not shoot, we no kill. They then ordered us to come up.

By this time they had boarded us, and we were obliged to surrender without conditions. They then proceeded to bind me, and the other four men with me, the master, Capt. Bovey being one. They stripped us, one after the other of all our clothes, only leaving tie a greasy shirt and waistcoat, and drawers we used to fish in, our shoes and stockings being in the cabin.

They then gave us liberty to sit upon deck, bound as we were all, till about two of the clock in the afternoon. After this they unbound us, and commanded us to sail our vessel towards Penobscot, which we endeavored to do; but the wind shortening we were forced to come to an anchor again, and lay there till the second day of our capture.

In the meantime, they told us they intended to kill all of us, and all the Englishmen, being in number twenty six, including boys, except three. They had taken four other vessels besides ours. On the second day they commanded us and the other ketches to sail together for Penobscot.

The Indians had dispersed themselves into all the ketches; there being seventy or eighty of them. As we sailed onward we espied a bark and gave her chase and soon took her, and found it Mr. Watts vessel.

The Indians compelled us to haile him, and he answered us he was from Boston, bound on a fishing voyage. To prevent the murder of him and his men, as soon as we came up with him we told him he was taken, but he thinking it only a joke, laughed at us.

The Indians now rose up and told Capt Watts if he did not strike they were all dead men. All but four of the Indians then went on board him, divided and mixed the Englishmen in the different vessels with themselves; sending master Bovey with one man more of our company, onboard another ketch, and left me as master of the ketch, (they wholly disliking the said Bovey) with an old man, whom I desired. And now being on board with Capt. Watts, the Indians having sent two of their number away, took two of Capt. Watts' men in their place, whereof one was William Buswell.

We had not been thus situated but a short time, when another sail was discovered, and we were commanded to give chase. We did so till it began to grow disky [dusky], and then the Indian Sagamore of our vessel ordered me, who being at the helm, to bear up; but I refused.

Thereupon the Sagamore grew angry, and was about to fall upon me, which William Buswell observing, seized him by the throat, and a close scuffle ensued. Buswell however soon tripped up his heels, fell upon him, and kept him down with his knee upon his breast.

Meantime, another of my companions in captivity, named Richard Dowries, closing with a second Indian, succeeded in getting him down also; and in attempting to throw him overboard, his legs became entangled, which Buswell perceiving, left his man, and seizing upon him too, they quickly threw him into the sea.

While this was going on the other Englishmen were enabled to confine the other Sagamore in the cook room, by shutting down the scuttle upon him. All hands then grasped another Indian and threw him overboard. It was a desperate attempt, but the victory was now certain. The two remaining Indians were Sagamores, one was an old man the other was a young man. One was fast in the cook room, and the other was glad to surrender to save his life.

We next proceeded to bind the two Indians, and then made all the sail we could to the southward, and on the fifteenth day [Sunday], a little before sun-down, we came to an anchor in the harbor of Marblehead.

News had reached this place that we were all killed and many people flocked to the water side to learn who we were and what other news they could, concerning the many vessels that had been taken by the Indians. They hailed us, and then some came on board; and when they saw the Indians, they demanded why we kept them alive and why we had not killed them.

We answered them, that we had lost everything, even to our clothes, and we thought if we brought them in alive, we might get somewhat by them towards our losses, But this did not satisfy the people, who were angry at the sight of the Indians, and now began to grow clamorous. We told them we should take them on shore and deliver them into the hands of the constable of the town, that they might be answerable to the court at Boston; and so we carried them on shore with their hands bound behind them,

Being on shore, the whole town flocked about them, beginning at first to insult them, and soon after, the women surrounded them, drove us by force from them, (we escaping at no little peril,) and laid violent hands upon the captives, some stoning us in the meantime, because we would protect them, others seizing them by the hair, got full possession of them, nor was there any way left by which we could rescue them. Then with stones, billets of wood, and what else they might, they made an end of these Indians.

We were kept at such distance that we could not see them till they were dead, and then we found them with their heads off and gone, and their flesh in a manner pulled from their bones. And such was the tumultation these women made, that for my life I could not tell who these women were, or the names of any of them.

They cried out and said, if the Indians had been carried to Boston, that would have been the end of it, and they would have been set at liberty; but said they, if there had been forty of the best Indians in the country here, they would have killed them all, though they should be hanged for ii. They suffered neither constable nor mandrake, nor any other person to come near them, until they had finished their broody purpose.

Taken upon oath this Robert Roules.
7th of July, 1677.
Edward Rowson, Sec.

Sunday, June 17, 2018

1685 in Philadelphia

About the progress of the town--talk of bricks & fish & linen, 
but no mention of women...

Letter from ROBERT TURNER to WILLIAM PENN on 3 August 1685


Having an opportunity by a Ship from this River, (out of which several have gone this Year) I thought fit to give a short account of proceedings, as to settlements here, and the Improvements both in Town and Country. As to the Country, the Improvements are large, and settlements very throng by way of Townships and Villages. Great inclinations to planting Orchards, which are easily raised, and some brought to perfection...

Now as to the Town of Philadelphia it goeth on in Planting and Building to admiration, both in the front and backward, and there are about 600 houses in 3 years time. And since I built my Brick House, the foundation of which was laid at thy going, which I did design after a good manner to encourage others, and that from building with Wood, it being the first, many take example, and some that built Wooden Houses, are sorry for it: Brick building is said to be as cheap: Bricks are exceeding good, and better than when I built: More Makers fallen in, and Bricks cheaper...and now many brave Brick Houses are going up, with good Cellars.

Arthur Cook is building him a brave Brick House near William Frampton’s, on the front: For William Frampton hath since built a good Brick house, by his Brew house and Bake house, and let the other for an Ordinary.

John Wheeler, from New England, is building a good Brick house, by the Blew Anchor; and the two Brickmakers a Double Brick House and Cellars; besides several others going on:

Samuel Carpenter has built another house by his. I am building another Brick house by mine, which is three large stories high, besides a good large Brick Cellar under it, of two Bricks and a half thickness in the wall, and the next story half under Ground, the Cellar hath an Arched Door for a Vault to go (under the Street) to the River, and so to bring in goods, or deliver out...

Thomas Smith and Daniel Pege are Partners, and set to making of Brick this Year, and they are very good; also, Pastorus, the German Friend, Agent for the Company at Frankford, with his Dutch People, are preparing to make Brick next year.

Samuel Carpenter is our Lime burner on his Wharf. Brave Lime Stone found here, as the Workmen say, being proved. We build most Houses with Balconies. Lots are much desir’d in the Town, great buying one of another. We are now laying the foundation of a large plain Brick house, for a Meeting House, in the Center, (sixty foot long, and about forty foot broad) and hope to have it soon up, many hearts and hands at Work that will do it.

A large Meeting House, 50 foot long, and 38 foot broad, also going up, on the front of the River, for an evening Meeting, the work going on apace. Many Towns People settling their liberty Lands. I hope the Society will rub off the Reproaches some have cast upon them. We now begin to gather in something of our many great Debts.

I do understand Three Companies for Whale Catching are designed to fish in the River’s Mouth this season, and find through the great Plenty of fish they may begin early. A Fisherman this Year found the way to catch Whiteins in this River, and it’s expected many sorts of fish more than hath been yet caught may be taken by the skilful. Fish are in such plenty that many sorts on trial have been taken with Nets in the Winter time: the Swedes laughing at the English for going to try, have since tried themselves. The River so big, and full of several sorts of brave fish, that it is believed, except frozen over, we may catch any time in the Winter. . . .

The manufacture of Linen by the Germans goes on finely, and they make fine Linen: Samuel Carpenter having been lately there, declares they had gathered one Crop of Flax, and had sowed for the Second and saw it come up well: And they say, might have had forewarder and better, had they had old seed, and not stayed so long for the Growth of new seed to sow again. And I may believe it, for large hath my experience been this Years, though in a small piece of Ground, to the admiration of many.

I thought fit to signify this much, knowing thou wouldst be glad to hear of thy People and Province’s welfare; the Lord preserve us all, and make way for thy return, which is much desired, not only by our Friends but all sorts.

I am, etc. thy truly Loving Friend, Robert Turner.

Saturday, June 16, 2018

Friday, June 15, 2018

1688 Mennonites Against Slavery

Germantown, Pennsylvania, 1688.

These are the reasons why we are against the traffic of men-body, as followeth:

Is there any that would be done or handled at this manner? viz., to be sold or made a slave for all the time of his life? How fearful and faint-hearted are many at sea, when they see a strange vessel, being afraid it should be a Turk, and they should be taken, and sold for slaves into Turkey. Now, what is this better done, than Turks do?

Yea, rather it is worse for them, which say they are Christians; for we hear that the most part of such negers are brought hither against their will and consent, and that many of them are stolen.

Now, though they are black, we cannot conceive there is more liberty to have them slaves, as it is to have other white ones. There is a saying, that we should do to all men like as we will be done ourselves; making no difference of what generation, descent, or colour they are.

And those who steal or rob men, and those who buy or purchase them, are they not all alike? Here is liberty of conscience, which is right and reasonable; here ought to be likewise liberty of the body, except of evil-doers, which is another case. But to bring men hither, or to rob and sell them against their will, we stand against.

In Europe there are many oppressed for conscience sake; and here there are those oppressed which are of a black colour.

And we who know that men must not commit adultery some do commit adultery in others, separating wives from their husbands, and giving them to others: and some sell the children of these poor creatures to other men.

Ah! do consider well this thing, you who do it, if you would be done at this manner and if it is done according to Christianity! You surpass Holland and Germany in this thing.

This makes an ill report in all those countries of Europe, where they hear of [it], that the Quakers do here handel men as they handel there the cattle. And for that reason some have no mind or inclination to come hither.

And who shall maintain this your cause, or plead for it? Truly, we cannot do so, except you shall inform us better hereof, viz.: that Christians have liberty to practice these things. Pray, what thing in the world can be done worse towards us, than if men should rob or steal us away, and sell us for slaves to strange countries; separating husbands from their wives and children.

Being now this is not done in the manner we would be done at; therefore, we contradict, and are against this traffic of men-body. And we who profess that it is not lawful to steal, must, likewise, avoid to purchase such things as are stolen, but rather help to stop this robbing and stealing, if possible. And such men ought to be delivered out of the hands of the robbers, and set free as in Europe.

Then is Pennsylvania to have a good report, instead, it hath now a bad one, for this sake, in other countries; Especially whereas the Europeans are desirous to know in what manner the Quakers do rule in their province; and most of them do look upon us with an envious eye. But if this is done well, what shall we say is done evil?

If once these slaves (which they say are so wicked and stubborn men,) should join themselves fight for their freedom, and handel their masters and mistresses, as they did handel them before; will these masters and mistresses take the sword at hand and war against these poor slaves, like, as we are able to believe, some will not refuse to do? Or, have these poor negers not as much right to fight for their freedom, as you have to keep them slaves?

Now consider well this thing, if it is good or bad. And in case you find it to be good to handel these blacks in that manner, we desire and require you hereby lovingly, that you may inform us herein, which at this time never was done, viz., that Christians have such a liberty to do so. To the end we shall be satisfied on this point, and satisfy likewise our good friends and acquaintances in our native country, to whom it is a terror, or fearful thing, that men should be handelled so in Pennsylvania.

This is from our meeting at Germantown, held ye 18th of the 2d month, 1688, to be delivered to the monthly meeting at Richard Worrell's.
Garret Henderich,
Derick op de Graeff,
Francis Daniel Pastorius,
Abram op de Graeff.

Thursday, June 14, 2018

Portrait of an 17C Boston British-American Woman and her Daughter

The Freake Limner (American Colonial Era Painter, active 1670-c 1680) Mrs Elizabeth Freake and Baby Mary 1674, Worcester Art Museum, Massachusetts

In the 17th-century the North American colonies enjoyed neither the wealth nor the leisure to cultivate the fine arts extensively. Colonial artisans working in pewter, silver, glass, or textiles closely followed European models. The 17th-century limners, generally unknown by name, turned out naive but often charming portraits in the Elizabethan style, the Dutch baroque style, or the English baroque court style, depending upon the European background of both artist and patron.

The artist depicted Elizabeth Feake, in a way that highlights her conservative wealth—and thus her favorable position within the eye’s of God—and her religious moderateness. Elizabeth wears unexpectedly fine attire. A small amount of blond hair is visible underneath her white lace hood. That hood brings visual attention to the white collar and the striking white lace that covers most of the bodice of her silver taffeta dress. Underneath her skirt is a striking red-orange velvet underskirt that is embroidered with a gold, lace-like pattern. She wears a white blouse that features lace cuffs on the sleeves, while red and black bows provide a visual splash of color and contrast against an otherwise somewhat achromatic ensemble. Elizabeth’s portrait is filled with baubles that speak to their affluence and to the family’s growth. She wears a triple-stranded string of pearls about her neck, a gold ring on her finger and a four-stranded garnet bracelet can be seen on her left thumb and wrist. She sits on a fashionable chair, and a Turkey-work rug can be seen resting on the back of the chair. Although Elizabeth currently holds her infant Mary, radiograph x-ray photography shows that she originally held a fan. That the painting has been modified—fan out, new baby who wears a fashionable dress in—demonstrates the relatively extravagant cost of having a portrait commissioned in the seventeenth century. It was more practical to have your daughter painted into an old portrait than to pay for a new one. 

The artist who painted this portrait is unknown. The artist is thus known as the Freake(-Gibbs) Limner and is considered one of the most skilled portraitists of the seventeenth-century colonies, possessing an exceptional sense of design and an admirable feel for color. Probably trained in provincial England, the Freake-Gibbs painter worked in a typically English flat style derived from Elizabethan art, which emphasized color and pattern. As was customary for portraits at the time, the children appear like adults in pose and manner, even the baby here, Mary.

Virginia Professor Susan M. Llewellyn tells us about the motivations of John Freake to have his portrait and those of his family painted. In the mid-1670s, two prominent Bostonian merchants commissioned portraits of themselves. One of them, John Freake, had his completed in Boston in a manner that echoed the Elizabethan English Native School. The other, Samuel Shrimpton, traveled to London to have himself portrayed in the English Baroque style. There were political, economic, religious, familial, and personal factors impacting their different self-fashioning choices. Completed within one year of each other, these two works provide a visual portrayal of Boston as a community in transition between its Puritan past and the secularized society of its future. The story begins as so many tales do: once upon a time, there were two men. Both were English citizens, both were merchants, both lived in Boston, and both were very, very successful. In fact, they were two of the wealthiest men in the Massachusetts Bay Colony They knew each other. They even invested in some of the same ships. That, however, is where their similarities end and the story begins. In the mid-1670s, within a single year, these two prominent, wealthy Boston merchants decided to have their portraits painted. One of them, Mr. John Freake, chose to have his completed in Boston, in a style that echoed Elizabethan English Renaissance art. The other, Mr. Samuel Shrimpton, traveled to London where he elected to be represented in an English Baroque manner. Noted art historian Wayne Cravens asserted that the style of early American portraits was an expression of their society and culture. Yet these two men, seemingly from the same socio-economic community commissioned very different portraits. While most art historians writing on seventeenth- century colonial portraiture generally focus on society level factors to explain popular modes of painting. Such a decision carried considerable weight in the colonial era, for, as English portrait painter Jonathan Richardson wrote in his 1715 treatise entitled, An Essay on the Theory of Painting, "To sit for one's Picture is to have an Abstract of one's Life written, and published, and ourselves thus consign'd over to Honour or Infamy."

Wednesday, June 13, 2018

The Road to The American Constitution - Fundamental Orders of 1639 Connecticut

Thomas Hooker led his church members in 1636 from Massachusetts, through the wilderness, to found the city of Hartford, Connecticut.

The Fundamental Orders were adopted by the Connecticut Colony council on January 14, 1639.The fundamental orders describe the government set up by the Connecticut River towns, setting its structure & powers. They wanted the government to have access to the open ocean for trading. The Orders have the features of a written constitution & are considered by some as the first written Constitution in the Western tradition. Thus, Connecticut earned its nickname of The Constitution State. It was a Constitution the government that Massachusetts had set up. However, this Order gave men more voting rights & made more men eligible to run for elected positions.

In the year of 1677, a group of Puritans & others who were dissatisfied with the rate of Anglican reforms sought to establish an ecclesiastical society subject to their own rules & regulations. The Massachusetts General Court granted them permission to settle the cities of Windsor, Wethersfield, & Hartford. Ownership of the land was called into dispute by the English holders of the Warwick Patent of 1631. The Massachusetts General Court established the March Commission to mediate the dispute, & named Roger Ludlow as its head. The Commission named eight magistrates from the Connecticut towns to implement a legal system. The March commission expired in March 1636, after which the settlers continued to self-govern.

On May 29, 1638, Ludlow wrote to Massachusetts Governor Winthrop that the colonists wanted to "unite ourselves to walk & lie peaceably & lovingly together." There is no record of the debates or proceedings of the drafting or enactment of the Fundamental Orders. The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut contains some principles that were later applied in creating the United States government. Government is based in the rights of an individual, & the orders spell out some of those rights, as well as how they are ensured by the government. It provides that all free men share in electing their magistrates, & uses secret, paper ballots. It states the powers of the government, & some limits within which that power is exercised.

In one sense, the Fundamental Orders were replaced by a Royal Charter in 1662, but the major outline of the charter was written in Connecticut & embodied the Orders' rights & mechanics. It was carried to England by Governor John Winthrop & basically approved by the British King, Charles II. The colonists generally viewed the charter as a continuation & surety for their Fundamental Orders. Later on, the Charter Oak got its name when that charter was taken from Jeremy Adams's tavern & supposedly hidden in an oak tree, rather than it be surrendered to the agents of James II, who intended to annex Connecticut to the more centralized Dominion of New England.

Fundamental Orders of 1639

For as much as it hath pleased Almighty God by the wise disposition of his divine providence so to order and dispose of things that we the Inhabitants and Residents of Windsor, Hartford and Wethersfield are now cohabiting and dwelling in and upon the River of Connectecotte and the lands thereunto adjoining; and well knowing where a people are gathered together the word of God requires that to maintain the peace and union of such a people there should be an orderly and decent Government established according to God, to order and dispose of the affairs of the people at all seasons as occasion shall require; do therefore associate and conjoin ourselves to be as one Public State or Commonwealth; and do for ourselves and our successors and such as shall be adjoined to us at any time hereafter, enter into Combination and Confederation together, to maintain and preserve the liberty and purity of the Gospel of our Lord Jesus which we now profess, as also, the discipline of the Churches, which according to the truth of the said Gospel is now practiced amongst us; as also in our civil affairs to be guided and governed according to such Laws, Rules, Orders and Decrees as shall be made, ordered, and decreed as followeth:

1. It is Ordered, sentenced, and decreed, that there shall be yearly two General Assemblies or Courts, the one the second Thursday in April, the other the second Thursday in September following; the first shall be called the Court of Election, wherein shall be yearly chosen from time to time, so many Magistrates and other public Officers as shall be found requisite: Whereof one to be chosen Governor for the year ensuing and until another be chosen, and no other Magistrate to be chosen for more than one year: provided always there be six chosen besides the Governor, which being chosen and sworn according to an Oath recorded for that purpose, shall have the power to administer justice according to the Laws here established, and for want thereof, according to the Rule of the Word of God; which choice shall be made by all that are admitted freemen and have taken the Oath of Fidelity, and do cohabit within this Jurisdiction having been admitted Inhabitants by the major part of the Town wherein they live or the major part of such as shall be then present.

2. It is Ordered, sentenced, and decreed, that the election of the aforesaid Magistrates shall be in this manner: every person present and qualified for choice shall bring in (to the person deputed to receive them) one single paper with the name of him written in it whom he desires to have Governor, and that he that hath the greatest number of papers shall be Governor for that year. And the rest of the Magistrates or public officers to be chosen in this manner: the Secretary for the time being shall first read the names of all that are to be put to choice and then shall severally nominate them distinctly, and every one that would have the person nominated to be chosen shall bring in one single paper written upon, and he that would not have him chosen shall bring in a blank; and every one that hath more written papers than blanks shall be a Magistrate for that year; which papers shall be received and told by one or more that shall be then chosen by the court and sworn to be faithful therein; but in case there should not be six chosen as aforesaid, besides the Governor, out of those which are nominated, than he or they which have the most writen papers shall be a Magistrate or Magistrates for the ensuing year, to make up the aforesaid number.

3. It is Ordered, sentenced, and decreed, that the Secretary shall not nominate any person, nor shall any person be chosen newly into the Magistracy which was not propounded in some General Court before, to be nominated the next election; and to that end it shall be lawful for each of the Towns aforesaid by their deputies to nominate any two whom they conceive fit to be put to election; and the Court may add so many more as they judge requisite.

4. It is Ordered, sentenced, and decreed, that no person be chosen Governor above once in two years, and that the Governor be always a member of some approved Congregation, and formerly of the Magistracy within this Jurisdiction; and that all the Magistrates, Freemen of this Commonwealth; and that no Magistrate or other public officer shall execute any part of his or their office before they are severally sworn, which shall be done in the face of the court if they be present, and in case of absence by some deputed for that purpose.

5. It is Ordered, sentenced, and decreed, that to the aforesaid Court of Election the several Towns shall send their deputies, and when the Elections are ended they may proceed in any public service as at other Courts. Also the other General Court in September shall be for making of laws, and any other public occasion, which concerns the good of the Commonwealth.

6. It is Ordered, sentenced, and decreed, that the Governor shall, either by himself or by the Secretary, send out summons to the Constables of every Town for the calling of these two standing Courts one month at least before their several times: And also if the Governor and the greatest part of the Magistrates see cause upon any special occasion to call a General Court, they may give order to the Secretary so to do within fourteen days' warning: And if urgent necessity so required, upon a shorter notice, giving sufficient grounds for it to the deputies when they meet, or else be questioned for the same; And if the Governor and major part of Magistrates shall either neglect or refuse to call the two General standing Courts or either of them, as also at other times when the occasions of the Commonwealth require, the Freemen thereof, or the major part of them, shall petition to them so to do; if then it be either denied or neglected, the said Freemen, or the major part of them, shall have the power to give order to the Constables of the several Towns to do the same, and so may meet together, and choose to themselves a Moderator, and may proceed to do any act of power which any other General Courts may.

7. It is Ordered, sentenced, and decreed, that after there are warrants given out for any of the said General Courts, the Constable or Constables of each Town, shall forthwith give notice distinctly to the inhabitants of the same, in some public assembly or by going or sending from house to house, that at a place and time by him or them limited and set, they meet and assemble themselves together to elect and choose certain deputies to be at the General Court then following to agitate the affairs of the Commonwealth; which said deputies shall be chosen by all that are admitted Inhabitants in the several Towns and have taken the oath of fidelity; provided that none be chosen a Deputy for any General Court which is not a Freeman of this Commonwealth.

The aforesaid deputies shall be chosen in manner following: every person that is present and qualified as before expressed, shall bring the names of such, written in several papers, as they desire to have chosen for that employment, and these three or four, more or less, being the number agreed on to be chosen for that time, that have the greatest number of papers written for them shall be deputies for that Court; whose names shall be endorsed on the back side of the warrant and returned into the Court, with the Constable or Constables' hand unto the same.

8. It is Ordered, sentenced, and decreed, that Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield shall have power, each Town, to send four of their Freemen as their deputies to every General Court; and Whatsoever other Town shall be hereafter added to this Jurisdiction, they shall send so many deputies as the Court shall judge meet, a reasonable proportion to the number of Freemen that are in the said Towns being to be attended therein; which deputies shall have the power of the whole Town to give their votes and allowance to all such laws and orders as may be for the public good, and unto which the said Towns are to be bound.

9. It is Ordered, sentenced, and decreed, that the deputies thus chosen shall have power and liberty to appoint atime and a place of meeting together before any General Court, to advise and consult of all such things as may concern the good of the public, as also to examine their own Elections, whether according to the order, and if they or the greatest part of them find any election to be illegal they may seclude such for present from their meeting, and return the same and their reasons to the Court; and if it be proved true, the Court may fine the party or parties so intruding, and the Town, if they see cause, and give out a warrant to go to a new election in a legal way, either in part or in whole. Also the said deputies shall have power to fine any that shall be disorderly at their meetings, or for not coming in due time or place according to appointment; and they may return the said fines into the Court if it be refused to be paid, and the Treasurer to take notice of it, and to escheat or levy the same as he does other fines.

10. It is Ordered, sentenced, and decreed, that every General Court, except such as through neglect of the Governor and the greatest part of the Magistrates the Freemen themselves do call, shall consist of the Governor, or some one chosen to moderate the Court, and four other Magistrates at least, with the major part of the deputies of the several Towns legally chosen; and in case the Freemen, or major part of them, through neglect or refusal of the Governor and major part of the Magistrates, shall call a Court, it shall consist of the major part of Freemen that are present or their deputiues, with a Moderator chosen by them: In which said General Courts shall consist the supreme power of the Commonwealth, and they only shall have power to make laws or repeal them, to grant levies, to admit of Freemen, dispose of lands undisposed of, to several Towns or persons, and also shall have power to call either Court or Magistrate or any other person whatsoever into question for any misdemeanor, and may for just causes displace or deal otherwise according to the nature of the offense; and also may deal in any other matter that concerns the good of this Commonwealth, except election of Magistrates, which shall be done by the whole body of Freemen.

In which Court the Governor or Moderator shall have power to order the Court, to give liberty of speech, and silence unseasonable and disorderly speakings, to put all things to vote, and in case the vote be equal to have the casting voice. But none of these Courts shall be adjourned or dissolved without the consent of the major part of the Court.

11. It is Ordered, sentenced, and decreed, that when any General Court upon the occasions of the Commonwealth have agreed upon any sum, or sums of money to be levied upon the several Towns within this Jurisdiction, that a committee be chosen to set out and appoint what shall be the proportion of every Town to pay of the said levy, provided the committee be made up of an equal number out of each Town.

14th January 1639 the 11 Orders above said are voted.

Tuesday, June 12, 2018

17C Woman by Wenceslaus Hollar (European-born mostly English artist, 1607-1677)

We have few depictions of women in the 17C British American colonies, but the prints by Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677) allow us to see the hairstyles & fashions being worn on the other side of the Atlantic during the early years of the English colonization of America.
Wenceslaus Hollar (Czech artist, 1607-1677)  'Ornatus Muliebris Anglicanus. The severall 'Habits of Englishwomen, from the Nobilitie to the 'Country Woman, as they are in these times. 1640.'  An English lady with short straight hair standing whole length to right, with her back turned towards the viewer; wearing a dark broad-rimmed hat, shoulder wrap with three rows of scalloped lace edge, raising her gown with her left hand to reveal two underskirts.

The artist Hollar was born in 1607, the son of an upper middle-class civic official. He left his native Prague at age 20. He was almost blind in one eye but became a skilled artist. His 1st book of etchings was published in 1635, in Cologne, when Hollar was 28. The following year his work caught they eye of English art collector the Earl of Arundel who visiting the continent.  Hollar became a part of his household, settling in England early in 1637. He left London for Antwerp in 1642, where he continued to work on a variety of projects for 10 years.  In 1652, he returned to England, working on a number of large projects for the publishers John Ogilby & William Dugdale. Hollar died in London in1677. By his life's end, he had produced nearly 3000 separate etchings.

Monday, June 11, 2018

Puritan Author Sarah Symmes Fiske 1652-1692

Sarah Symmes Fiske was born in 1652, in Charleston, Massachusets, and died in 1692, in Braintree, Massachusetts. Sarah, only 40 when she died, was the grandaughter of Zachariah Symmes, a noted New England minister. Her father William Symmes held the respected position of justice of the peace for the county of Middlesex, Massachusettes, and died just one year before his daughter. Her mother, also named Sarah, died when baby Sarah was only a year old.

Sarah married Harvard graduate and the new minister of the Braintree congregation in Norfolk County, Moses Fiske, when she was 19; and then she delivered 14 babies in 17 years. Moses, the son of clergyman John Fiske and Ann Gipps who had immigrated to the colonies from Suffolk, England, was ten years older than Sarah.

The huge family lived in a house on 6 acres of fenced land in Quincy. It was a hectic and frugal life. Her husband's stipend was paid partially in corn and wood. The congregation's meeting house was stone and furnished with a bell plus benches for seating women on one side and men on the other. There were 71 families in the Church of Braintree. During Fiske's ministry 147 members were added to the church. Sarah would not live to see three of her surviving sons attend college like their father, or her surviving daughters marry.

When she was 25 and in the midst of raising her young family, Sarah made time to write her spiritual autobiography like many others preparing for admission into membership in the church congregation. The minister's wife's document A CONFESSION OF FAITH: OR, A SUMMARY OF DIVINITY. DRAWN UP BY A YOUNG GENTLE-WOMAN, IN THE TWENTY-FIFTH YEAR OF HER AGE impressed the congregation, her family, friends and the wider community; and it was passed among members of her church for years after her death in 1692, before it was published in 1704. Writings by 17th and 18th century women were often not published until some time after their death.

Many spiritual autobiographies penned by New Englanders in the 17th century were dramatically written to convey the emotional turmoil of the congregant's wrenching quest for personal salvation. But Sarah Fiske decided to approach the mandatory confession in an impersonal, reasoned fashion. Because she married a minister at 19 and her grandfather was a minister, she was familiar with Ramist logic, the system of religious reasoning used by the New England Puritans in their theological discourses.

She presented a thoughtful religious examination topic by topic writing about the Bible; God's Creation; Man's Fall from Grace; The Punishments of Sin and Death; Grace and Predestination, and the promise of Jesus Christ. According to Sarah, all of these factors exhibited the overall redemptive plan of a great God.

Her work reflected on the organization of the contemporary church and the symbolism and importance of the sacraments. She concluded her examination with her brief vision of the apocalyptic end of this world reminiscent of the book of Revelations in the Bible.

Her work is important not just because of its analytical approach, but also because she was a woman writer deemed worthy of publication.

I Believe, That the Holy Scriptures, the Books of the Old & the New Testament, Penned by the Pro|phets & Apostles, are the Infallible Word of God, the Subject of true Divinity; That only Rule of Faith & Manners, teaching what man ought to Believe concerning God, and what Duty God requires of man.

I Believe, GOD is a most Pure, Powerful, Eternal, Un|changeable Being, Independent, Incomprehensible, Invsii|ble & Glorious; in whom all Fulness dwells, both of Holi|ness & Righteousness, Grace & Mercy, Wisdome & Truth.

I Believe, That there is but ONE God, and that there are Three Persons in the God-head; The Father, the Son, & the Holy Ghost. The Father is of Himself; The Son of the Father; and the Holy Ghost from the foregoing Persons in the Trinity.

I Believe, The Decrees of God are His Determinate Purpose of Effecting all things, by His Allmighty Power, according to the Counsel of His Will.

I Believe, God doth Execute His Decrees, in the works of Creation and Providence.

I Believe, The work of Creation is that, whereby God made the world & all things therein, of nothing, and very good.

I Believe, The Providence of God is that, whereby He accom|plisheth in His Creatures, what He intended in his Counsel.

I Believe, That as Man at first, was formed of the Dust of the Earth, consisting both of Soul & Body, being made Up|right, Cloathed with the Image of God; the Effects where|of, were a sweet and blessed Harmony of Union and Com|munion with God; so from this estate of happiness, all men fearfully Fell in Adam, thro' wilful Disobedience, in contradicting the Express Commandment of God, by Eat|ing the Forbidden Fruit. The Act of this Transgression, was compleated by our First Parents Eating that forbidden Fruit; in the Guilt of which Act, all the natural Posterity of Adam, are by the just imputation of God involved. The principal (blameable) cause was their abusing their Free|will: The helping cause was the Devil. Altogether un|blameable was the Command of God, against which Adam dashing himself, as a stately Vessel against a mighty Rock, made Ship-wreck of his whole estate. The Consequents whereof, were Guilt, Filth, and Punishment.

Guilt, is that Obligation, whereby the sinner is tyed to undergo due Punishment.

Filth, is that Spiritual Pollution, whereby the sinner is made void of all comeliness and honour, and is become vile.

Punishment, is the Reward of Evil, inflicted upon the sin|ner because of sin; which is, Death, both Spiritual & Corporal.

I Believe, That the sin which follows this Fall, is either Original, or Actual.

Original Sin, is an habitual inclination to walk contrary to the Law of God.

Actual Sin, is a continual Exercise of the Act, in going contrary to the Command of God. This comprehends both Sins of Omission and Commission.

The inchoation of Corporal Death, lies in a miserable pri|vation of the good things of this Life; the consummation whereof, is the separation of Soul and Body.

Spiritual Death, is a miserable privation of the comforta|ble life and happiness [especially] of the inner man. The Inchoation whereof consists in a desperate privation of the sweetness of Gods favour and presence. The Con|summation whereof is a final Dejection from the face of God, into Hell; of the Soul immediately after the First Death, & of the Soul & Body, joyned together at the day of Judgment.

And tho' all are thus fallen, yet,

I Believe, That there are some, (tho' but a few,) their number and names, being only known unto God, who shall be everlastingly saved from sin and sorrow, and freely re|ceived into everlasting life; being such as the Lord in His infinite wisdom hath made choice of, before the world was, to be His Militant Servants on Earth, & to be His Triumphant Saints in Heaven, thro' Riches of, Grace in Christ Jesus.

Restitution, is that whereby a man is lifted up, from a state of Sin and Death, into a state of Grace and Life. The parts whereof are Redemption and Application.

Redemption is that, whereby a man is freed from the Bon|dage of Sin & Satan, thro' the satisfaction of a Redeemer.

I Believe, That this Redeemer is the Lord Jesus Christ, by in ineffable Generation, the Eternal Son of God, whom the Father hath appointed from all Eternity, to purchase the Salvation of all the Elect of God; who willingly gave up himself to be a Sacrifice, for the sins of his People, & in order hereunto, took upon Him our Nature, in every thing made like to us, Sin only excepted, & the manner of His subsist|ing; and therefore He was made a fit, and suitable Re|deemer, both in respect of His Person in that He was God|man, and His Offices which he hath freely taken upon him, accomplishing from time to time, his Prophetical, Priestly, and Kingly Mediatorship. His Prophetical, in Revealing to man the deep things of the Wisdom and good Pleasure of God. His Priestly, in Expiating for Sin, and purchasing Favour with the Father, and making continual Intercession for us. His Kingly, whereby he leads men to the attain|ment of Holiness & Blessedness by an uncontroulable Power: Conquering his & our Enemies, & at last Raising us from the Dead. Thus Christ Redeems his Elect both by his Humi|liation and Exaltation. His Humiliation, in that Abasement of Christ, whereby he became subject to satisfy Divine Justice, for our Offences, and to merit life & happiness. His Exaltation, whereby he obtains a stately Victory, full of Glory and Triumph, over His and our Enemies.

I Believe, That the Effectual & saving Application of Christ and all his purchased Grace, in a Gospel way, is Exhibited in due season, to every one that belongs to the Election of Grace; which consists in Vnion and Communion with Christ.

Vnion with Christ, is the consent and agreement, whereby a Believer is joyned to Christ, as his Spiritual Head. This Union is begun, in the powerful Ministry of the Law, whereby the Soul is convinced of Sin, & the necessity of a Saviour; but it is accomplished in Vocation, which is a fruit of the Covenant, whereby the Lord powerfully accompanying his Word by his Spirit, doth not only graciously Invite, but effectually Draw the Soul to accept the Tender of Grace, and to embrace Fellowship with Christ Jesus. The special Graces here required are, Repentance and Faith.

Faith is that Grace of God, whereby the Soul is brought to confide, and acquiess in the Lord Jesus Christ, both for the Grace it stands in need of here, and for Glory hereafter.

Repentance is a turning of the whole man, from Sin unto God, with a resolution of, and endeavours after New Obedience.

Communion with Christ, is that whereby the People of God do participate with him, in all his Benefits revealed in Scripture▪ having his Righteousness imputed, together with his Active & Passive Obedience, for their Justification; and withal, the Priviledges of Son-ship or, Adoption, the Im|press of Christs likeness, upon their Souls in Sanctification; made Perfect in the Heavenly world, in a state of Glorification.

Justification is an Act of Gods free Grace; whereby he blots out all the Debts and Arrearages, of every believing sinner, for Christ his sake, and withal gives him a Bill of Dis|charge, from all the Accompts, that were between God and his Soul, receiving him as Righteous in his sight, both for the satisfaction of his Justice, & glory of his Mercy.

Adoption is that Grace of God, whereby he receives every believing sinner, in owning Himself to be their Father, and they to be His Children, and consequently, that they have right unto, and in due time shall have the possession of the promised Inheritance, which appertains to such a Relation. The effects whereof are Freedom from Sin, and Boldness to approach before God in Prayer.

Prayer is a going to God in the Name of Christ, by the help of the Spirit, whereby we present our desires before him, for things according to his Will.

I Believe, That Sanctification is a Work of Gods power, whereby sinners are translated from the pollution of sin unto the perfection of the Image of God; which is begun

in a state of imperfection in this life, made perfect & com|pleat in the world to come. The parts whereof, are Mor|tification, and Vivification. Mortification is a putting off the Image of Adam, by applying the Death of Christ. Vivifi|cation is a putting on, the Image of Christ, by applying the power of His Resurrection.

I Believe That Glorification is that perfecting Grace of God, whereby the number of his Elect, having compleated their warfare & work in this world, according to the will of God, are freely discharged of their sin and the events thereof, forever; and made Fellow-heirs with Christ, of all the promised Inheritance.

I Believe, the Church, the Subject of this blessing, is either General or Particular.

I Believe, That there is but one General, Universal, Invisible Church of the Saints, in which is contained, the whole num|ber of Gods Elect, that one Mystical Body, Christs Bride; the particular Members whereof, have the same Father, the same Christ, the same Spirit, the same Faith & Baptism. This Church is not compleated here, at one and the same time; for it is partly Militant, & partly Triumphant.

I Believe, That a Visible Particular Church, is a Society of Faithful ones, with their Seed, who are in Ecclesiastical Confaederation with God, and one with another. Or, a convenient Number of Faithful ones, Saints & their Seed, Order|ly, Solemnly, & Religiously, Covenanting with God, & each other, for the advancement of the Kingdom of God, and their own mutual Edification, by the improvement of all those means that are appointed to that end.

I Believe, This Church being compleat, consists of Officers and Members.

The Officers are Pastors Teachers, Ruling-Elders, & Deacons.

The Office & Work of a Pastor, is that whereby he bends himself, especially to apply the Word to the hearts of his Hearers, according to their several occasions & necessities.

The Labour of the Teacher is that, whereby he bends himself, especially to open the Scriptures, & divine principles, refuting errors

The Work of a Ruling-Elder, consists in waiting at the Doors of the Sanctuary, watching over the Church, and wayes of Church-Members.

The Office of a Deacon is to collect & distribute, the outward Estate of the Church, providing for the Table of the Lord,  Ministers, & the Poor, & that with all Chearfulness & Fidelity.

I Believe, That this Church thus constituted, & thus fur|nished, hath a right of Administring, both Seals & Censures.

The Seals are Baptism, and the Lords Supper. The former of Initiation the other of Education.

I Believe, That Baptism is that washing of the Flesh with wa|ter, in the Name of the Father, Son & Holy Ghost, whereby is signified, Christ in the promise, by whom we are washed from Sin, & made Righteous, deliverd from Death, & restored to Life.

I Believe, That the Lords Supper, is the second Sacrament of the New Testament, instituted by Christ, wherein by the signs of bread & wine, & the actions that concern the same, is shewed forth his death; and God doth signifie, seal, & exhibit the body & blood of Christ, with all the benefits of his Death & Passion, to every worthy receiver, for his Spiritual Nou|rishment, and Growth in Grace.

The Censures are Admonition & Excommunication. Admonition is that whereby a Brother openly offending, or not hearing his Brethren in private, is convinced, that he may be gained. Excommunication is that, whereby a Brother offending, and not hearing the Church, is excluded from the Communion of the Saints, for the cure of his Spirit, and the preserva|tion of the Church.

I Believe, That as the world had a beginning, so it shall have an end: At what time, both those that are Dead, and Alive, shall be gathered together before the Lord Jesus Christ to Judgment, at the sound of the last Trumpet; where every one shall receive a full Reward of their works: The Sheep being set at his right hand, are acquitted of sin, & re|ceived into glory; but the Goats at his left hand, are Sen|tenced irrevocably to suffer Everlasting Torments, with the Devil and his Angels, in the Lake of Unquenchable Fire and Brimstone.