Monday, July 10, 2017

Women Over There - Attempts to explore & settle America under Elizabeth I

 Queen Elizabeth (1533-1603) succeeds Queen Mary.
1560 Queen Elizabeth I 1533-1603 The Clopton Portrait. 
1562 Jean Ribault (1520-1565), French exporler financed by Queen Elizabeth, establishes Huguenot colony (Charles Fort) at Port Royal in South Carolina.
Jean Ribault (1520-1565)
John Hawkins, (1532-1595), English Explorer, makes his 1st voyage to the West Indies.
John Hawkins, (1532-1595)
1563Charles Fort in South Carolina is abandoned.
"The French Left in Charlesfort Suffer from Lack of Provisions" Volume II of Theodor De Bry's Grand Voyages. 1590 
Second colony of Huguenots under René de Laudonnière (c 1529-1574) is established on St. John's River in Florida.
René de Laudonnière (c 1529-1574)
John Hawkins makes his 2nd voyage to the West Indies and Guinea.
1565 St. Augustine is established.
Baptista Boazio, Saint Augustine Map (1589)
1567 John Hawkins departs on 3rd voyage.
1568 Hawkins fights Spanish at Battle of Vera Cruz, later sets ashore at Tampico, Mexico, where 3 of his men begin a 12 month march to the north, reaching Cape Breton.

Illustration of the carrack Jesus of Lübeck 
The Battle of San Juan de Ulúa
1576 Martin Frobisher's 1st voyage.
1577 Martin Frobisher's 2nd voyage.
Martin Frobisher (c 1535-39 - 1594)
1578 Martin Frobisher's 3rd voyage.
England & Netherlands sign treaty to fight Spain.
Humphrey Gilbert (1539-1583) sails for America with 350 men but they are forced to return.
Humphrey Gilbert (1539-1583) 
1580 Francis Drake (1540-1596) returns to England from voyage around the world.
Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger (1561–1636) 
Francis Drake (1540-1596)
1583 Humphrey Gilbert's voyage to Newfoundland; his ship is lost on the return voyage.
1584 Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe (c 1550–c 1620) reach Roanoke Island in July, returned to England in September.
Theodor de Bry after John White 
1585 Sir Walter Raleigh's (1522-1618) fleet of 7 vessels under Richard Grenville (1542-1591) + Ralph Lane (c 1532-1603) , with 108 men, reach Roanoke Island in June.
Sir Walter Raleigh 1522-1618 
1586 In June, Sir Francis Drake arrives from Florida & removes the Lane colony to England.
Sir Richard Grenville & 3 ships arrive at Roanoke in August.
1587 John White (c 1540-1593) with 150 men, women, & children sent by Sir Walter Raleigh to plant the Cittie of Raleigh on the Chesapeake Bay, land at Hatorask on July 22.
1585 John White (English artist, c 1540-1593) 
A Fire Ceremony
1590 John White returns to Roanoke Island.
1592 Captain Christopher Newport (1561-1617).  sails for the West Indies. 
1596 Captain Amias Preston & Sir George Somers (1554–1610) sail to the West Indies.

Sir George Somers (1554–1610) 
1602 Sir Walter Raleigh sent Samuel Mace of Weymouth on a voyage to Virginia (North Carolina) to gather plant materials & to search for survivors of the Lost Colony.
Capt. Bartholomew Gosnold (1572 - 1607), Capt. Bartholomew Gilbert, Capt. Gabriel Archer (c1575-c1610), & others sent on voyage to New England coast.
English traders regularly visit Nova Scotia.
1603 Capt. Martin Pring (1580 – 1626) sent to New England coast by Bristol merchants.
Capt. Bartholomew Gilbert sent on voyage to Chesapeake Bay; Gilbert + 4 others went ashore (likely the Eastern Shore) & are killed by Indians.

Allegorical Painting of 1610 Queen Elizabeth I (1538-1603) 
in Old Age, c.1610 at Corsham Court, Wiltshire. 
The Virgin Queen Elizabeth I dies, & James VI of Scotland becomes James I.