Theodor de Bry (1528-1598) Native Americans Making Canoes A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia
The first voyage made to the coasts of America after Elizabeth I's grant to Sir Walter Raleigh, with two barks, wherein were Captaines M. Philip Amadas, & M. Arthur Barlowe, who discovered part of the Countrey now called Virginia, Anno 1584. Written by one of the said Captaines, & sent to sir Walter Ralegh knight, at whose charge & direction, the said voyage was set forth.
The 27 day of Aprill, in the yeere of our redemption, 1584 we departed the West of England, with two barkes well furnished with men & victuals, having received our last & perfect direcions by your letters, confirming the former instructions, & commandements delivered by your selfe at our leaving the river of Thames. And I thinke it a matter both unnecessary for the manifest discoverie of the Countrey, as also for tediousnesse sake, to remember unto you the diurnall of our course, sayling thither & returning: onely I have presumed to present unto you this briefe discourse, by which you may judge how profitable this land is likely to succeede, as well to your selfe, (by whose direction & charge, & by whose servantes this our discoverie hath beene performed) as also to her Highnesse, & the Common wealth, in which we hope your wisedome wilbe satisfied, considering that as much as by us hath bene brought to light, as by those smal meanes, & number of men we had, could any way have bene expected or hoped for.
The tenth of May we arrived at the Canaries, & the tenth of June in this present yeere, we were fallen with the Islands of the West Indies, keeping a more Southeasterly course then was needefull, because wee doubted that the current of the Bay of Mexico, disbogging betweene the Cape of Florida & Havana, had bene of greater force then afterwardes we found it to bee. At which Islands we found the ayre very unwholsome, & our men grew for the most part ill disposed: so that having refreshed our selves with sweet water, & fresh victuall, we departed the twelfth day of our arrivall there. These Islands, with the rest adjoyning, are so well knowen to your selfe, & to many others, as I will not trouble you with the remembrance of them.
The second of July, we found shole water, wher we smelt so sweet, & so strong a smel, as if we had bene in the midst of some delicate garden abounding with all kinde of odoriferous flowers, by which we were assured, that the land could not be farre distant: & keeping good watch, & bearing but slacke saile, the fourth of the same moneth we arrived upon the coast, which we supposed to be a continent & firme lande, & we sayled along the same a hundred & twentie English miles before we could finde any entrance, or river issuing into the Sea. The first that appeared unto us, we entred, though not without some difficultie, & cast anker about three harqquebuz-shot within the havens mouth, on the left hand of the same: & after thankes given to God for our safe arrivall thither, we manned our boats, & went to view the land next adjoyning, & to take possession of the same, in the right of the Queenes most excellent Majestie, as rightffull Queene, & Princesse of the same, & after delivered the same over to your use, according to her Majesties grant, & letters patents, under her Highnesse great Seale. Which being performed, according to the ceremonies used in such enterprises, we viewed the land about us, being, whereas we first landed, very sandie & low towards the waters side, but so full of grapes, as the very beating & surge of the Sea overflowed them, of which we found such plentie, as well there as in all places else, both on the sand & on the greene soile on the hils, as in the plaines, as well on every little shrubbe, as also climing towardes the tops of high Cedars, that I thinke in all the world the like abundance is not to be found: & my selfe having seene those parts of Europe that most abound, find such difference as were incredible to be written.
We passed from the Sea side towardes the toppes of those hilles next adjoyning, being but of meane higth & from thence wee behelde the Sea on both sides to the North, & to the South, finding no ende any of both wayes. This lande lay stretching it selfe to the West, which after wee found to bee but an Island of twentie miles long, & not above sixe miles broade. Under the banke or hill whereon we stoode, we behelde the vallyes replenished with goodly Cedar trees, & having discharged our harquebuz-shot, such a flocke of Cranes (the most part white) arose under us, with such a cry redoubled by many ecchoes, as if an armie of men had showted all together.
This Island had many goodly woodes full of Deere, Conies, Hares, & Fowle, even in the middest of Summer in incredible abundance. The woodes are not such as you finde in Bohemia, Muscovia, or Hercynia, barren & fruitles, but the highest & reddest Cedars of the world, farre bettering the Ceders of the Âcores, of the Indies, or Lybanus, Pynes, Cypres, Sassaphras, the Lentisk, or the tree that beareth the Masticke, the tree that beareth the rine of blacke Sinamon, of which Master Winter brought from the streights of Magellan, & many other of excellent smell & qualitie. We remained by the side of this Island two whole dayes before we saw any people of the Countrey: the third day we espied one small boate rowing towardes us having in it three persons: this boat came to the Island side, foure harquebuz-shot from our shippes, & there two of the people remaining, the third came along the shoreside towards us, & wee being then all within boord, he walked up & downe upon the point of the land next unto us: then the Master & the Pilot of the Admirall, Simon Fernandino, & the Captaine Philip Amadas, my selfe, & others rowed to the land, whose comming this fellow attended, never making any shewe of feare or doubt. And after he had spoken of many things not understood by us, we brought him with his owne good liking, aboord the ships, & gave him a shirt, a hat & some other things, & made him taste of our wine, & our meat, which he liked very wel: & after having viewed both barks, he departed, & went to his owne boat againe, which hee had left in a little Cove or Creeke adjoyning: as soone as hee was two bow shoot into the water, he fell to fishing, & in lesse then halfe an houre, he had laden his boate as deepe, as it could swimme, with which hee came againe to the point of the lande, & there he devided his fish into two parts, pointing one part to the ship, & the other to the pinnesse: which, after he had (as much as he might) requited the former benefites received, departed out of our sight.
The next day there came unto us divers boates, & in one of them the Kings brother, accompanied with fortie or fiftie men, very handsome & goodly people, & in their behaviour as mannerly & civill as any of Europe. His name was Granganimeo, & the king is called Wingina, the country Wingandacoa, & now by her Majestie Virginia. The maner of his comming was in this sort: hee left his boates altogether as the first man did a little from the shippes by the shore, & came along to the place over against the ships, followed with fortie men. When he came to the place over against the ships, followed with fortie men. When he came to the place, his servants spread a long matte upon the ground, on which he sate downe, & at the other ende of the matte foure others of his companie did the like, the rest of his men stood round about him, somewhat a farre off: when we came to the shore to him with our weapons, hee never mooved from his place, nor any of the other foure, nor never mistrusted any harme to be offred from us, but sitting still he beckoned us to come & sit by him, which we performed: & being set hee made all signes of joy & welcome, striking on his head & his breast & afterwardes on ours, to shewe wee were all one, smiling & making shewe the best he could of all love, & familiaritie. After hee had made a long speech unto us, wee presented him with divers things, which hee received very joyfully, & thankefully. None of the company durst speake one worde all the time: onely the foure which were at the other ende, spake one in the others eare very softly.
The King is greatly obeyed, & his brothers & children reverenced: the King himselfe in person was at our being there, sore wounded in a fight which hee had with the King of the next countrey, called Wingina, & was shot in two places through the body, & once cleane through the thigh, but yet he recovered: by reason whereof & for that hee lay at the chiefe towne of the countrey, being sixe dayes journey off, we saw him not at all.
After we had presented this his brother with such things as we thought he liked, wee likewise gave somewhat to the other that sat with him on the matte: but presently he arose & tooke all from them & put it into his owne basket, making signes & tokens, that all things ought to bee delivered unto him, & the rest were but his servants, & followers. A day or two after this we fell to trading with them, exchanging some things that we had, for Chamoys, Buffe, & Deere skinnes: when we shewed him all our packet of merchandize, of all things that he sawe, a bright tinne dish most pleased him, which hee presently tooke up & clapt it before his breast, & after made a hole in the brimme thereof & hung it about his necke, making signes that it would defende him against his enemies arrowes: for those people maintaine a deadly & terrible warre, with the people & King adjoyning. We exchanged our tinne dish for twentie skinnes, woorth twentie Crownes, or twentie Nobles: & a copper kettle for fiftie skins woorth fifty Crownes. They offered us good exchange for our hatchets, & axes, & for knives, & would have given any thing for swordes: but wee would not depart with any. After two or three dayes the Kings brother came aboord the shippes, & dranke wine, & eat of our meat & of our bread, & liked exceedingly thereof: & after a few dayes overpassed, he brought his wife with him to the ships, his daughter & two or three children: his wife was very well favoured, of meane stature & very bashfull: shee had on her backe a long cloake of leather, with the furre side next to her body, & before her a piece of the same: about her forehead shee had a bande of white Corall, & so had her husband many times: in her eares shee had bracelets of pearles hanging downe to her middle, (whereof wee delivered your worship a little bracelet) & those were of the bignes of good pease. The rest of her women of the better sort had pendants of copper hanging in either eare, & some of the children of the kings brother & other noble men, have five or sixe in either eare: he himselfe had upon his head a broad plate of golde, or copper for being unpolished we knew not what mettal it should be, neither would he by any meanes suffer us to take it off his head, but feeling it, would bow very easily. His apparell was as his wives, onely the women weare their haire long on both sids, & the men but on one. They are of colour yellowish, & their haire black for the most part, & yet we saw children that had very fine aburne, & chestnut coloured haire.
After that these women had bene there, there came downe from all parts great store of people, bringing with them leather, corall, divers kindes of dies very excellent, & exchanged with us: but when Granganimeo the kings brother was present, none durst trade but himselfe: except such as weare red pieces of copper on their heads like himselfe: for that is the difference betweene the noble men, & the governours of the countreys, & you have understood since by these men, which we brought home, that no people in the worlde cary more respect to their King, Nobilitie, & Governours, then these doe. The Kings brothers wife, when she came to us (as she did many times) was followed with forty or fifty women alwayes: & when she came into the shippe, she left them all on land, saving her two daughters, her nurse & one or two more. The Kings brother alwayes kept this order, as many boates as he would come withall to the shippes, so many fires would hee make on the shore a farre off, to the end we might understand with what strength & company he approached. Their boates are made of one tree, either of Pine or of Pitch trees: a wood not commonly knowen to our people, nor found growing in England. They have no edge- tooles to make them withall: if they have any they are very fewe, & those it seemes they had twentie yeres since, which, as those two men declared, was out of a wrake which happened upon their coast of some Christian ship, being beaten that way by some storme & outragious weather, whereof none of the people were saved, but only the ship, or some part of her being cast upon the sand, out of whose sides they drew the nayles & the spikes, & with those they made their best instruments. The manner of making their boates is thus: they burne downe some great tree, or take such as are winde fallen, & putting gumme & rosen upon one side thereof, they set fire into it, & when it hath burnt it hollow, they cut out the coale with their shels, & ever where they would burne it deeper or wider they lay on gummes, which burne away the timber, & by thie meanes they fashion very fine boates, & such as will transport twentie men. Their oares are like scoopes, & many times they set with long pooles, as the depth serveth.
The Kings brother had great liking of our armour, a sword, & divers other things which we had: & offered to lay a great boxe of pearle in gage for them: but we refused it for this time, because we would not make them knowe, that we esteemed thereof, untill we had understoode in what places of the countrey the pearle grew: which now your Worshippe doeth very well understand. He was very just of his promise: for many times we delivered him merchandize upon his word, but ever he came within the day & performed his promise. He sent us every day a brase or two of fat Bucks, Conies, Hares, Fish the best of the world. He sent us divers kindes of fruites, Melons, Walnuts, Cucumbers, Gourdes, Pease, & divers rootes, & fruites very excellent good, & of their Countrey corne, which is very white, faire & well tasted, & groweth three times in five moneths: in May they sow, in July they reape, in June they sow, in August they reape: in July they sow, in September they reape: onely they cast the corne into the ground breaking a little of the soft turfe with a wodden mattock, or pickeaxe: our selves prooved the soile, & put some of our Pease in the ground, & in tenne dayes they were of fourteene ynches high: they have also Beanes very faire of divers colours & wonderfull plentie: some growing naturally, & some in their gardens, & so have they both wheat & oates.
The soile is the most plentifull, sweete, fruitfull & wholsome of all the worlde: there are above foureteene severall sweete smelling timber trees, & the most part of their underwoods are Bayes & such like: they have those Okes that we have, but farre greater & better. After they had bene divers times aboord our shippes, my selfe, with seven more went twentie mile into the River, that runneth towarde the Citie of Skicoak, which River they call Occam: & the evening following, wee came to an island, which they call Raonoak, distant from the harbour by which we entred, seven leagues: & at the North end thereof was a village of nine houses, built of Cedar, & fortified round about with sharpe trees, to keepe out their enemies, & the entrance into it made like a turne pike very artificially; when wee came towardes it, standing neere unto the waters side, the wife of Granganimo the kings brother came running out to meete us very cheerefully & friendly, her husband was not then in the village; some of her people shee commanded to drawe our boate on shore for the beating of the billoe: others she appointed to cary us on their backes to the dry ground, & others to bring our oares into the house for feare of stealing. When we were come into the utter roome, having five roomes in her house, she caused us to sit downe by a great fire, & after tooke off our clothes & washed them, & dryed them againe: some of the women plucked off our stockings & washed them, some washed our feete in warme water, & shee her selfe tooke great paines to see all things ordered in the best maner shee could, making great haste to dresse some meate for us to eate.
After we had thus dryed our selves, she brought us into the inner roome, where shee set on the boord standing along the house, some wheate like furmentie, sodden Venison, & roasted, fish sodden, boyled, & roasted, Melons rawe, & sodden rootes of divers kindes, & divers fruites: their drinke is commonly water, but while the grape lasteth, they drinke wine, & for want of caskes to keepe it, all the yere after they drink water, but it is sodden with Ginger in it, & blacke Sinamon, & sometimes Sassaphras, & divers other wholesome, & medicinable hearbes & trees. We were entertained with all love & kindnesse, & with as much bountie (after their maner) as they could possibly devise. We found the people most gentle, loving, & faithfull, voide of all guile & treason, & such as live after the maner of the golden age. The people onely care howe to defend themselves from the cold in their short winter, & to feed themselves with such meat as the soile affoordeth: there meate is very well sodden & they make broth very sweet & savorie: their vessels are earthen pots, very large, white & sweete, their dishes are wodden platters of sweet timber: within the place where they feede was their lodging, & within that their Idoll, which they worship, of whome they speake incredible things. While we were at meate, there came in at the gates two or three men with their bowes & arrowes from hunting, whom when wee espied, we beganne to looke one towardes another, & offered to reach our weapons: but as soone as shee espied our mistrust, shee was very much mooved, & caused some of her men to runne out, & take away their bowes & arrowes & breake them, & withall beate the poore fellowes out of the gate againe. When we departed in the evening & would not tary all night, she was very sory, & gave us into our boate our supper halfe dressed, pottes & all, & brought us to our boateside, in which wee lay all night, remooving the same a prettie distance from the shoare: shee perceiving our jealousie, was much greived, & sent divers men & thirtie women, to sit all night on the banke side by us, & sent us into our boates five mattes to cover us from the raine, using very many wordes to intreate us to rest in their houses: but because wee were few men, & if wee had miscaried, the voyage had bene in very great danger, wee durst not adventure any thing, though there was no cause of doubt: for a more kinde & loving people there can not be found in the worlde, as farre as we have hitherto had triall.
Beyond this Island there is the maine lande, & over against this Island falleth into this spacious water, the great river called Occam by the inhabitants on which standeth a towne called Pomeiock, & sixe dayes journey from the same is situate their greatest citie called Skicoak, which this people affirme to be very great: but the Savages were never at it, only they speake of it by the report of their fathers & other men, whom they have heard affirme it to bee above one houres journey about.
Into this river falleth another great river, called Cipo, in which there is found great store of Muskles in which there are pearles: likewise there descendeth into this Occam, another river, called Nomopana, on the one side whereof standeth a great towne called Chawanook, & the Lord of that towne & countrey is called Pooneno: this Poomeno is not subject to the king of Wingandacoa, but is a free Lord: beyond this country is there another king, whom they cal Menatonon, & these three kings are in league with each other. Towards the Southwest, foure dayes journey is situate a towne called Sequotan, which is the Southernmost towne of Wingandacoa, neere unto which, sixe & twentie yeres past there was a ship cast away, whereof some of the people were saved, & those were white people, whome the countrey people preserved.
And after ten dayes remaining in an out Island unhabited, called Wocokon, they with the help of some of the dwellers of Sequotan, fastened two boates of the countrey together & made mastes unto them, & sailes of their shirtes, & having taken into them such victuals as the countrey yeelded, they departed after they had remained in this out Island 3 weekes: but shortly after it seemed they were cast away, for the boates were found upon the coast, cast a land in another Island adjoyning: other then these, there was never any people apparelled, or white of colour, either seene or heard of amongst these people, & these aforesaid were seen onely of the inhabitants of Secotan, which appeared to be very true, for they wondred marvelously when we were amongst them at the whitenes of our skins, ever coveting to touch our breasts, & to view the same. Besides they had our ships in marvelous admiration, & all things els were so strange unto them, as it appeared that none of them had ever seene the like. When we discharged any piece, were it but an hargubuz, they would tremble thereat for very feare, & for the strangenesse of the same: for the weapons which themselves use are bowes & arrowes: the arrowes are but of small canes, headed with a sharpe shell or tooth of a fish sufficient ynough to kill a naked man. Their swordes be of wood hardened: likewise they use wooden breastplates for their defence. They have besides a kinde of club, in the end whereof they fasten the sharpe hornes of a stagge, or other beast. When they goe to warres they cary about with them their idol, of whom they aske counsel, as the Romans were woont of the Oracle of Apollo. They sing songs as they march towardes the battell in stead of drummes & trumpets: their warres are very cruell & bloody, by reason whereof, & of their civill dissentions which have happened of late yeeres amongst them, the people are marvelously wasted, & in some places the countrey left desolate.
Adjoyning to this countrey aforesaid called Secotan begginneth a countrey called Pomovik, belonging to another king whom they call Piamacum, & this king is in league with the next king adjoyning towards the setting of the Sunne, & the countrey Newsiok, situate upon a goodly river called Neus: these kings have mortall warre with Wingina king of Wingandacoa: but about two yeeres past there was a peace madde betweene the King Piemacum, & the Lord of Secotan, as these men which we have brought with us to England, have given us to understand: but there remaineth a mortall malice in the Secotanes, for many injuries & slaughters done upon them by this Piemacum. They invited divers men, & thirtie women of the best of his countrey to their towne to a feast: & when they were altogether merry, & praying before their Idol, (which is nothing els but a meer illusion of the devil) the captaine or Lord of the town came suddenly upon them, & slewe them every one, reserving the women & children: & these two have often times since perswaded us to surprize Piemacum his towne, having promised & assured us, that there will be found in it great store of commodities. But whether their perswasion be to the ende they may be revenged of their enemies, or for the love of they beare to us, we leave that to the tryall hereafter.
Beyond the Island called Roanoak, are maine Islands very plentifull of fruits & other naturall increases, together with many townes, & villages, along the side of the continent, some bounding upon the Islands, & some stretching up further into the land.
When we first had sight of this countrey, some thought the first land we saw to bee the continent: but after we entred into the Haven, we saw before us another mighty long Sea: for there lyeth along the coast a tracte of Islands, two hundreth miles in length, adjoyning to the Ocean sea, & betweene the Islands, two or three entrances: when you are entred betweene them (these Islands being very narrow for the most part, as in most places sixe miles broad, in some places lesse, in fewe more) then there appeareth another great Sea, containing in bredth in some places, forty, & in some fifty, in some twenty miles over, before you come unto the continent: & in this inclosed Sea there are above an hundreth Islands of divers bignesses, whereof one is sixteene miles long, at which we were finding it a most pleasant & fertile ground, replenished with goodly Cedars, & divers other sweete woods, full of Corrants, of flaxe, & many other notable commodities, which we at that time had no leasure to view. Besides this Island there are many, as I have sayd, some of two or three, or foure, or five miles, some more, some lesse, most beautifull & pleasant to behold, replenished with Deere, Conies, Hares & divers beasts, & about them the goodliest & best fish in the world, & in greatest abundance.
Thus Sir, we have acquainted you with the particulars of our discovery, made this present voyage, as farre foorth as the shortnesse of the time we there continued would affoord us take view of: & so contenting our selves with this service at this time, which wee hope hereafter to inlarge, as occasion & assistance shalbe given, we resolved to leave the countrey, & to apply our selves to returne for England, which we did accordingly, & arrived safely in the West of England about the middest of September. (We brought home also two of the Savages being lustie men whose names were Wanchese & Manteo.)
And whereas wee have above certified you of the countrey taken in possession by us, to her Majesties use, & so to yours by her Majesties grant, wee thought good for the better assurance thereof to record some of the particular Gentleman, & men of accompt, who then were present as witnesses of the same, that thereby all occasion of cavill to the title of the countrey, in her Majesties behalfe may be prevented, which otherwise, such as like not the action may use & pretend, whose names are:
Master Philip Amadas,
Master Arthur Barlow,
Of the Companie: